apa itu sains?

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  • 1.1.Apa itu Sains?

2. Sains Kajian yang sistematik tentang fenomena alam.Contoh fenomena semulajadi Letupan gunung berapi.Pertumbuhan bayiGerhana matahariPeleburan ais Pembentukkan pelangi 3. Bidang bidang Sains Kajian tentang benda hidup1 Biologi 2 FizikKajian tentang tenaga dan kesannya ke atas jirim3 KimiaKajian tentang jirim dan tindak balas antaranya.4 GeologiKajian tentang batuan, tanih dan mineral5 Astronomi 6 MeteorologiKajian tentang planet, bintang, dan objek lain dalam alam semesta Kajian tentang perubahan cuaca dan iklim 4. Kerjaya dalam sains Doktor Pakar diet Ahli botaniAhli botani Ahli farmasi Ahli farmasi Ahli meteorologi Ahli kimia Jurutera Arkitek Saintis Angkasawan. 5. Kepentingan Sains Sains membantu kita memahami alam sekitar Sains meningkatkan taraf kehidupan Sains menawarkan kerjaya yang berasaskan sains Sains meyumbang kepada penemuan dan penciptaan baru. 6. 2. A Science Laboratory 7. Hazard Symbols 8. Hazard Symbols Symbol and meaning1ExamplesPetrol & KerosenePhosphorus Highly flammable2Alcohol / Ethanol Sodium PotassiumExplosiveHydrogen 9. Hazard Symbols Symbol and meaning3Harmful / Irritant4ExamplesAmmonia Chlorine Chlorofom MercuryLeadSodium cyanide Hydrogen sulphide Toxic / PoisonousBromine 10. Hazard Symbols Symbol and meaning 5Examples Sodium hydroxide Hydrogen peroxideCorrosive 6Concentrated acids & alkalis Uranium Radium ThoriumRadioactivePlutonium 11. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUSCONTAINERBeaker flask Conical flask Flat-bottomed flask Round-bottomed 12. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUSTest tube holder Filter funnelGas jar Crucible For heating To hold ToTo contain filter mixtures test tubes gas of solids and liquids chemicals 13. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUSCrucible Tripod Bunsen Wire gauze burner tongs stand To provide a flame To support apparatus To conduct excess To during heating holdheating for hot objects heat away 14. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUSGlassstand Retort Evaporating Syringe and clamp rod dish ToFor stirring hold the apparatus To transfer small For evaporating liquid while experiments are liquids from a solution quantities done of liquids being 15. COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUSPipette ThermometerAn To measure a Burette Measuring of Stop ammeter fixed volumecylinder watch solutionsAn instrument to To measure a small accurately volume of solutions To measure Tomeasure electric measure the volume accurately of solutions accurately To measure time current temperature Suction pump 16. BUNSEN BURNER Barrel Collar Air-hole Gas inletBase 17. BUNSEN BURNER.Air-hole open 2.Non-luminous does not give out light3. Does not give out soot [Gas is completely burn]4. Suitable for heatingvery hot1. Air-hole close 2. Luminous-gives out light 3. Gives out a lot of soot 4. Not suitable for heating-not very hotJust remember one side only 18. BUNSEN BURNER 19. Steps in lighting a Bunsen burner1Close the air hole by turning the collar2Light a match and bring it near the barrel3Turn on the gas pipe4Adjust the collar on the Bunsen burner 20. 3. The Steps in a Scientific Investigation 21. Steps in a Scientific Investigation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Identify the problem Making a smart guess/ hypothesis Plan the experiment Control the variables Carry out the experiment Recording/Collect data Analysing the data Interpreting the data Making conclusions Writing reports 22. 4. Physical Quantities and Their Units 23. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES & THEIR UNITSQuantityUnitSymbol of unitLength Mass Timemetre kilogram secondm kg sTemperaturekelvinKElectric current ampereA 24. Physical quantityMeasured by using1. LengthA metre rule2. MassBeam balanceLever balance3. Time 4. Temperature 5. Electric currentA stop watchA thermometerAn ammeterElectronic balance 25. PREFIXES PrefixSymbolValue of prefixkilo-k1000centi-cmilli-m1 100 1 1000 26. Examples show how prefixes are used 27. 5. Weight and Mass 28. 1. The amount of matter in the object1. The pull of the Earth on the object2. Always the same2. Not always the same-WEIGHT IS NOT 3. Measured by using a 3. Measured by using a THE SAME AS MASS spring balance or a lever balance or a tripleanywheredepends on the force of gravitybeam balance 4. Measured in kilogramscompression balance 4. Measured in newtons 29. Balance for measuring WeightSpring balanceCompression balance 30. Balance for measuring MassLever balanceBeam balanceElectronic balance 31. WEIGHT AND MASSWeight Mass 1 kg 60 kgEarthMoonOuter space10 N10/6 N0N600 N100 N0N60 kg60 kg60 kg1 kg = 1 x ( gravity = 10 ) = 10 N 32. Balance for measuring MassTriple beam balanceLever balanceBeam balanceLever balance 33. 6. Measuring Tools 34. Measurement of Length to measure the length of short straight lineto measure the length of long straight lineto measure the length of a curved lineto measure the length of a4. An opisometer (map measurer)crooked line 35. Measurement of Length 5. External callipers6. Internal callipers 36. Measurement of Length Measuring the thickness of a beakerExternal diameter = 2.2 cm Internal diameter = 2.1 cm Thickness of the beaker = External diameter Internal diameter 2= 0.1 = 0.05 cm 2 37. 4.8 cm 4.6 cm 2 = 0.1 cm = 1mm 38. Measurement of Length The correct way to read the scale on a ruler 39. Measuring a curved line using a thread and a ruler 40. Measurement of Area 41. 1PMR 2008 42. Measuring the volume of liquids To measure the volume of liquids To measure a small volume of liquids accurately To measure a fixed volume of liquids accurately Use a suction pump to suck liquid into a pipette. Do not use your mouth 43. Measuring the volume of liquids The correct way to read the scale on a measuring cylinder 44. Measuring the volume of liquids The correct way to read the scale on a measuring cylinder 45. Measuring the volume of liquids To improve the accuracy of the reading . .use a hand lens to read the scale put a piece of white paper behind the scale 46. WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD To measure the volume of regular and irregular solids 47. Estimating the volume of irregular solidsWATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD 48. Estimating the volume of a corkVolume of the cork = ( 58 52 ) ml = 6 ml = 6 cm WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD 49. Estimating the volume of irregular solidsWATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD 50. WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD EUREKA CAN