osteologi da psik semester 2 kd 2 anatomy

Click here to load reader

Post on 04-Jul-2015

729 views

Category:

Data & Analytics

5 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

SEMESTER 2 kd 2 anatomy

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1. Osteologi

2. 2 Fungsi Tulang 1. Penunjang (Support) Tulang2 ekstremitas inferior, cingulum pelvicum, columna vertebralis Mandibula pada gigi Tulang lainnya yang menunjang organ dan jaringan 1. Perlindungan (Protection) Cranium melindungi otak Costae dan sternum melindungi paru-paru dan jantung Vertebrae melindungai corda spinalis 1. Pergerakan (Movement) 2. Penyimpan mineral dan jaringan lemak (adiposa) 99% kalsium tubuh 85% fosfor Adipose tissue terdapat pada cavum medullare tulang2 tertentu 1. Hematopoiesis Pembentukan sel darah di cavum medullare 3. 3 Berdasarkan struktur: Pars cartilaginosa Perichondrium Pars ossea Periosteum, tdd: osteoprogenitor, osteoblast. Endosteum, tdd: osteoblast, osteoclast. Substantia compacta Substantia spongiosa (trabecularis) Klasifikasi Tulang 4. 4 1. Os Longum : Epifise (proximal & distal) Lempeng epifise Metafise Diafise atau Corpus (cavum medulla berisi sumsum tulang) Ex : tulang ekstremitas sup. & inf. 2. Os Breve Bentuk Cuboid Ex : ossa carpalia & tarsalia Berdasarkan bentuk: 5. 5 3. Os planum Bentuk pipih Subs compacta > tulang di cranium, scapulae, sternum, costae, 4. Os irregulare Bentuk tdk beraturan, tdk dpt dimasukkan pd kelompok sebelumnya Os vertebrae, coxae, sphenoidale, ethmoidale Klasifikasi Tulang 6. 6 Berdasarkan letak: Axial skeleton Membentuk sumbu panjang tubuh. Tdd: cranium, columna vertebralis, dan costae. Fungsi: proteksi, support. Appendicular skeleton Tulang2 ekstremitas sup. dan inf. beserta cingulumnya (cingulum pectorale dan pelvicum). Fungsi: lokomosi dan perlindungan thd lingkungan. Klasifikasi Tulang 7. 7 AXIAL SKELETON Tdd : cranium vertebrae sacrum coccyx sternum costae 8. 8 Neurocranium : os occipitale os parietale ( 1 psg ) os temporale ( 1 psg ) os frontale os sphenoidale Splanchnocranium / Viscerocranium : os maxilla ( 1 psg ) os mandibula os zygomaticus ( 1 psg ) os nasale ( 1 psg ) os vomer os ethmoidale os palatina ( 1 psg ) os lacrimale ( 1 psg ) concha nasalis inferior (1 psg ) CRANIUM 9. 9 The SkullThe Skull Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.7 10. 10 Bones of the SkullBones of the Skull Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.11 11. 11 Inferior ViewInferior View Slide 5.24Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.9 12. 12 Superior ViewSuperior View Slide 5.23Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.8 For. opticum For. rotundum For. spinosum 13. 13 OS MANDIBULA Corpus mandibulae : For. Mentale For. Mandibulae Angulus mandibulae : Ramus mandibulae : Proc. Coronoideus Proc. Condyloideus Incisura mandibulae 14. 14 Columna Vertebralis Slide 5.28Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vertebrae dipisahkan oleh discus intervertebralis Pemberian nama sesuia dengan lokasinya Figure 5.14 15. 15 Karakteristik umum vertebrae Corpus Vertebrae Arcus Vertebrae pediculus lamina vertebrae Processus (7): Processus spinous Processus transversus Processus articularis sup & inf. Foramen Vertebralis Canalis Vertebralis Foramen Intervertebralis 16. 16 VERTEBRAE CERVICALIS : Corpus : kecil Foramen Vertebralis : besar, segitiga Processus Spinosus : pendek,bercabang (C3 - C5), panjang pada C6 , C7 Processus Transversus : foramen transversus 17. 17 Atlas (C1) Corpus & processus spinosus Arcus anterior & posterior arches Fovea dentis Axis (C2): Dens axis berartikulasi dengan fovea dentis os atlas Vertebra prominens (C7): Proc. spinosus panjang & tidak bercabang 18. 18 Vertebrae Thoracalis Corpus vertebrae : bentuk jantung, fovea costalis corporis superior and inferior Foramen Vertebralis : kecil, bulat Processus Spinosus : panjang Processus Transversus : fovea costalis transversalis 19. 19 Vertebrae Lumbalis Corpus Vertebrae besar, bentuk seperti ginjal Foramen Vertebrae : besar, segitiga 20. 20 Sacrum Facies Anterior : promontorium, foramina sacralis anterior (4 psg) Facies Posterior : crista sacralis media, & lateralis, foramina sacralis posterior (4 psg), hiatus sacralis, cornu sacralis Facies Lateralis: facies auricularis, tuberositas sacralis 21. 21 Sternum Manubrium sterni : incissura jugularis, incissura clavicularis Corpus sterni : incissura costalis Processus Xiphoideus Angulus Sterni Ludovici : sudut yg dibentuk oleh pertemuan manubrium dengan corpus sterni 22. 22 Kerangka DadaKerangka Dada Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dibtk 3 kelompok tulang : Sternum Costae Vert. Thoracalis Figure 5.19a 23. 23 Ossa Costae Costae 1 7 : costae vera / sejati Costae 8 10 : costae spuria affixa Costae 11 12 : costae spuria fluctuantes 24. 24 Karakteristik Costae : CAPITULUM COSTAE Facies articularis capituli costae (berartikulasi dg fovea costalis corporis vertebrae) Crista capituli costae ( costae II X ) COLLUM COSTAE Tuberculum costae Facies articularis tuberculi costae (costae I X ) (berartikulasi dg fovea costalis transversalis) CORPUS COSTAE Angulus costae Sulcus costae (berjalan arteri, vena, n.intercostalis ) 25. 25 Costa I: pipih, tuberculum scalenus anterior, sulcus arteri & vena subclavian Costa 11 & 12 collum costae tuberculum costae angulus costae - 26. 26 1. SKELETON EKSTREMITAS CRANIALIS Komposisi : Gelang Bahu (Shoulder girdle): Clavicula Scapula Tulang Ekstremitas Cranialis yg bebas Humerus Radius and ulna Carpal, metacarpals, phalanges APPENDICULAR SKELETON 27. 27 Clavicula Extremitas sternalis : Medial, ujung lebih bundar Extremitas acromialis : Lateral, ujung pipih 28. 28 Scapula 3 Margo : Superior: processus coracoideus , incissura scapularis Lateral Medial 3 Angulus : Superior Inferior Lateral: cavitas glenoidalis, 2 Facies : Facies Anterior : concave, fossa subscapularis Facies Posterior : fossae supra & infraspinata, spina scapula, acromion 29. 29 OS HUMERUS EPIPHYSE PROXIMAL DIAPHYSE EPIPHYSE DISTAL Caput humeri Cavitas glenoidalis scapulae Collum anatomicum Tuberculum majus Tuberculum minus Sulcus intertubercularis tendon caput longum m.biceps brachii Crista tuberculi majoris Crista tuberculi minoris Collum chirurgicum Tuberositas deltoidea Sulcus n.radialis Epicondylus lateralis Epicondylus medialis Fossa radialis Fossa coronoidea Fossa olecrani (post.) Capitulum humeri (Fovea capituli radii) Trochlea humeri (Incisura semilunaris os ulna) Sulcus n. ulnaris 30. 30 RADIUS EPIPHYSE PROXIMAL DIAPHYSE EPIPHYSE DISTAL Capitulum radii Fovea capituli radii (Capitulum humeri) Circumferentia articularis capituli radii (Incisura radialis os ulna) Tuberositas radii 3 Margo : volaris, dorsalis, crista interossea Proc. Styloideus Incisura ulnaris (Circumferentia articularis ulnae) Facies articularis carpae (Ossa carpalia) 31. 31 Ulna Epiphyse proximal : olecranon processus coronoideus incissura semilunaris incissura radialis Epiphyse distal : processus styloideus capitulum ulnae 32. 32 Ossa Carpalia : Deret Proximal (radial ke ulnair) : scaphoid (naviculare manus), lunatum, triquetrum, pisiformis Deret Distal (radial ke ulnair) : trapezium (multangulum majus), trapezoideum (mulangulum minus), capitatum, hamatum Ossa Metacarpalia : Ibu jari Kelingking ( jari I V) Ossa Phalanges : Jumlah total = 14 Ibu jari (2) , jari lain (3) 33. 33 2. SKELETON EKSTREMITAS CAUDALIS Dibentuk Oleh : Gelang Pangul (Pelvic girdle) : Os coxae (2) Tulang Ekstremitas Caudalis yg bebas : Femur ( patella) Tibia , fibula Tarsal, metatarsal, phalanges 34. 34 OS COXAE Dibtk oleh : os ilium, os ischium, os pubis bertemu di Acetabulum Acetabulum : - Incisura acetabuli - Facies lunata - Fossa acetabuli Foramen obturatorium - ditutupi membrana obturatoria 35. 35 OS ILIUM : Fossa iliaca Facies auricularis ossis ilii Linea arcuata Tuberositas iliaca Crista iliaca Spina iliaca : ant. Sup., post. Sup., ant. Inf., post. Inf. OS ISCHIUM : Incisura ischiadica major Spina ischiadica Incisura ischiadica minor OS PUBIS : Eminentia iliopectinea Tuberculum pubicum Symphisis ossis pubis 36. 36 PELVISPELVIS Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23a 37. 37 Gender Differences of the PelvisGender Differences of the Pelvis Slide 5.39Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23c 38. 38 PERBEDAAN PELVIS WANITA PELVIS PRIA Pelvis major Lebih besar Lebih kecil Aditus pelvis Oval melintang Seperti jantung Arcus pubis 90 < 90 Incisura ischiadica major Lebih besar Lebih kecil Inclinatio pelvis 60 -65 55 60 Os sacrum Lebih pendek & lebar Lebih datar Lebih panjang Lebih melengkung 39. 39 FEMUR Epiphyse Proximal : Caput femoris Collum femoris Trochanter major & minor Crista intertrochanterica Corpus : linea aspera Planum popliteum Epiphyse Distal : Condylus lateralis & medialis Epicondylus medialis & lateralis Facies patellaris 40. 40 TIBIA Epiphyse proximal : Condylus medialis & lateralis Eminentia intercondylaris Facies articularis superior Facies lateralis fibulae Tuberositas tibiae Epiphyse distal : Facies articularis inferior Malleolus medialis 41. 41 FIBULA Ep. Prox. : Capitulum fibulae Apex capituli fibulae Corpus : margo interossea Ep. Distal : Malleolus lateral Merupakan os sesamoid Patella 42. 42 Ossa Tarsalia Deret Posterior : talus , calcaneus Deret Tengah : navicular bone Deret Anterior : cuboid, cuneiforme (medial, intermedia, lateral) Ossa Metatarsalia Ibu jari Kelingking ( jari I V) Ossa Phalanges Jumlah total = 14 Ibu jari (2) , jari lain (3)