edu5900 (ce)

Author: ctsyikin

Post on 15-Jul-2015

479 views

Category:

Documents


0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

EDU 5900-PROF DR AB RAHIM BAKAR TEKNIK PENYELIDIKAN DALAM PENDIDIKAN 1.0 PENGENALAN TEKNIK PENYELIDIKAN DALAM PENDIDIKAN

Kenapa belajar Penyelidikan Pendidikan? Untuk menjadi "research literate." Kerana kita hidup dalam satu masyarakat yang dipandu oleh penyelidikan Untuk membaiki kemahiran pemikiran kritikal Untuk mempelajari bagaimana untuk menilai secara kritikal tentang penyelidikan yang diterbitkan Untuk mempelajari bagaimana menjalankan penyelidikan jika sesuatu isu yang perlu dibangkitkan suatu hari Objektif Penyelidikan Pendidikan Terdapat 5 objektif utama penyelidikan pendidikan iaitu; 1. Meneroka (Exploration)-dilakukan apabila anda cuba untuk menjana idea tentang sesuatu 2. Menerangkan (Description)-dilakukan apabila anda mahu menerangkan tentang ciri-ciri sesuatu atau beberapa fenomen. 3. Memberitahu (Explanation)-dilakukan apabila anda mahu menunjukkan bagaimana dan kenapa sesuatu fenomena itu berlaku. Jika anda berminat dalam causality, anda biasanya berminat dalam explanation. 4. Meramal (Prediction). Ini adalah objektif anda apabila minat utama anda adalah membuat ramalan tepat. Menyedari bahawa ilmu sains melakukan lebih banyak ramalan yang tepat berbanding sains sosial dan tingkah laku. 5. Pengaruh (Influence). Objektif ini berbeza sedikit. Ianya melibatkan amalan terhadap keputusan penyelidikan untuk memberi kesan kepada dunia. Sebagai contoh; Program demonstrasi. Ringkasan Andaian Biasa yang Dilakukan oleh Penyelidik Pendidikan 1. Terdapat dunia di luar sana yang boleh dikaji. Ini meliputi kajian tentang dunia dalaman individu. 2. Sebahagian dunia adalah unik; sebahagiannya adalah sama atau berbentuk/berpola atau boleh diramal; dan kebanyakkan adalah dinamik dan kompleks (Nota: Kategori ini kadang-kala boleh berlapis/bertindih). 3. Keunikan, persamaan, dan kompleks dalam dunia boleh diuji dan dikaji oleh penyelidik. 4. Penyelidik perlu cuba untuk mengikut sesetengah persetujuan-terhadap norma dan amalan. 5. Adalah mungkin untuk menentukan antara tuntutan lebih atau kurang dan baik atau buruk penyelidikan. 6. Sains tidak boleh menyediakan jawapan kepada semua persoalan. Kategori Penyelidikan 2 kategori iaitu; 1. Kuantitatif 2. Kualitatif Tujuan Rekabent uk Pendekat an Sampel Analisis Kuantitatif Mengkaji hubungan, sebab dan akibat Membangunkan keutamaan terhadap kajian Deduktif, menguji teori Besar Analisis statistik menggunakan data numeric Kualitatif Memahami fenomena sosial Evolves semasa kajian Interaksi bersemuka Kecil Deskripsi naratif dan interpretasi

1. Kuantitatif i. Experimental research ii. Non-experimental (Penyelidikan deskriptif) i. Experimental a. Preii. Non-exprimental (Descriptive research) a. Ex post facto

experiment b. True experiment c. Quasiexperiment [many designs]

b. Correlational research c. Survey research

i.

Experimental research The most rigorous Biasanya membangunkan rawatan yang berbeza dan mengkaji kesannya. Result clear cut interpretation Contoh: Seorang guru sejarah mungkin mahu mengetahui bagaimana dia boleh mengajar konsep-konsep penting kepada pelajarnya? Dia mungkin membandingkan dua pendekatan yang berbeza untuk mengajar sejarah.

ii. Non-experimental (Penyelidikan deskriptif) a. Correlational research Untuk membangunkan hubungan diantara dua atau lebih pembolehubah. 2 jenis Correlational research, iaitu; Concurrent correlational studies Relationship is drawn from the same point in study. Example: relationship between . Predictive correlational studies Using one characteristics to predict the other. Example: use SPM grade to predict CGPA a. Ex post facto Juga dikenali sebagai causal-comparative study Untuk menentukan sebab perbezaan di antara dua kumpulan manusia apabila experimental research adalah not possible. Contoh; Untuk menentukan sama ada struktur keluarga (keluarga mempunyai ibu bapa tunggal-dua) menyebabkan prestasi lemah dalam pendidikan. b. Survey research Bertujuan untuk meneroka (explore) dan menerangkan (describe) Tidak menyelidik hubungan Sampel besar Masa sedikit (Slice of time) Developmental study Trend study Cohort study Panel study Data are gathered at several points in time Case study Involve small sample Purpose similar to survey and trend studies More depth Direct observation or interviews Single subject, a club, a school, a teenage gang Also known as a type of qualititative research 1. Kualitatif Ethnography: Case Studies Document or content analysis an in-depth study of natural occuring behavior within a culture or social group in-depth study of a single unit (an individual, a group, a program, an organization etc.) Analysing or interpreting recorded materials wihin its own contact

Naturalistic Obseravtion Focused interview Historical Research

Unobstructive observation. People being observed are aware of the observation Unstructured and open-ended format to draw subject response on a topic of interest Analyse documents and artifacts to what has happened in the past.

Kategori Penyelidikan Yang Mana Harus Dipilih? Sifat semulajadi soalan atau masalah yang akan dikaji tidak menentukan kaedah yang digunakan. (Sesetengah sesuai untuk kuantitatif dan sesetengah pula sesuai untuk kualitatif) Cadangan: Boleh menggunakan kedua-duanya untuk mempelbagaikan dapatan yang lain; sebagai satu asas kepada yang lain; meneroka aspek-aspek berlainan terhadap persoalan penyelidikan yang sama. Soalan-soalan yang ditanya oleh Penyelidik Pendidikan Theoretical [focus on developing theories or testing theories] What is intelligence? How does the child learn? Why does one forget? More commonly done is to test the existing theory Asas dan Amalan Penyelidikan Basic Aimed at obtaining empirical data to formulate and expand theory. Aim is to expand the frontiers of knowledge without regard to practical application. Applied Aimed at solving immediate problems Not aimed at generalization [a study on the efectiveness of a teaching method on] Practical [aim at solving specific problem] How effective is peer tutoring? What is the relative effectiveness of mtheod a compared with method B? How does teaching. Affect.?

Penyelidikan Tindakan Focuses on solving practitioners local problems. It is generally conducted by the practitioners after they have learned about the methods of research and research concepts that are discussed in your textbook. It is important to understand that action research is also a state of mind; for example, teachers who are action researchers are constantly observing their students for patterns and thinking about ways to improve instruction, classroom management, and so forth. Peringkat-peringkat Tipikal Dalam Penyelidikan Select a problem Review literature Design the research Collect data Analyse data Interprate the findings Report results 2.0 SUMBER-SUMBER PENGETAHUAN

Di mana kita mendapatkan maklumat yang diperlukan? 1. Pengalaman 2. Autoriti 3. Deductive reasoning Proses logik 4. Inductive reasoning - Empirism

1. Pengalaman/ExperiencesTapi, apa masalahnya? Overgeneralization Selected observation Premature closure Halo Effect

2. Autoriti/Pandangan pakarManusia kadang-kala mendapatkan pendangan daripada seseorang yang mempunyai pengalaman atau pengetahuan. Kita berjumpa dengan physician bagi masalah kesihatan, kita berjumpa dengan stockbrokers untuk pelaburan dll. Siapakah yang mempunyai autoriti? i. Ibu bapa, guru-guru, pakar, buku Cara cepat, mudah dan murah untuk mengetahui tentang sesuatu. Adakah jawapan atau penyelesaian sah dan boleh dipercayai? Ianya bergantung kepada kredibiliti pakar. Mereke member pandangan berdasarkan apa yang mereka tahu. ii. Tradisional Autoriti tentang masa lalu. Misalnya: kenapa buat begini? Orang dah biasa buat begini, sakitnya baik iii. Andaian biasa (Common sense) - Kalau hukuman tak berat, penagih makin ramai. iv. Media myth - Apa yang digambarkan oleh media semuanya betul.

1. Deductive reasoning (Proses Logik)Mencapai kesimpulan melalui logik Dari asas kepada khusus Satu sistem mengurus pengetahuan fakta dalam arahan untuk mencapai satu kesimpulan melalui satu proses logik. Bermula dengan premis [bukti menyokong/supporting evidence] (major dan minor) dan berakhir dengan rumusan Untuk membolehkan rumusan itu benar, maka premis mestilah benar. Contoh; Orang Malaysia adalah orang Asia. (major premise) Ahmad adalah orang Malaysia. (minor premise) Oleh itu Ahmad adalah orang Asia. (Conclusion) All human beings are mortal Sally is a human being Therefore, Sally is mortal Every mammal has lungs All rabbits are mammals Therefore, every rabbit has a lung

Nota:

** Kedua-dua premis (major and minor) mesti benar untuk mendapatkan satu kesimpulan yang benar** ** Jika mana-mana satu adalah tidak benar, maka kesimpulan yang dibuat mungkin tidak benar** Melainkan jika kedua-dua pernyataan pertama benar, pernyataan ketiga mesti benar.

2. Inductive reasoning-empirismKesimpulan dicapai melalui pemerhatian terhadap contoh-contoh dan membuat pengitlakan daripada contoh terhadap keseluruhan kelas. (Dalam deduktif, premise mesti diketahui dan benar sebelum mencapai satu kesimpulan yang benar. Tetapi, bagaimana seseorang mengetahui sama ada premis-premis tersebut adalah benar) Untuk lebih pasti lagi mengenai ketepatan rumusan, kita mesti mencerap semua contoh. Dan ini dikenali PERFECT INDUCTION Tetapi dalam keadaan sebenar, pencerapan ke atas semua unit adalah tidak praktikal, maka kita akan buat IMPERFECT INDUCTION berdasarkan pencerapan yang tidak lengkap. Kita hanya mampu buat perfect induction bagi kumpulan kecil sahaja. Sesuatu rumusan yang kita buat untuk suatu kumpulan kecil tidak semestinya benar untuk kumpulan lain. Oleh itu kita biasanya buat imperfect induction di mana kita mencerap sampel kemudian membuat ramalan kepada keseluruhan kumpulan. Contoh; Setiap arnab yang diperhatikan mempunyai paru-paru. Maka, setiap arnab mempunyai paru-paru. Kaedah Saintifik Pendekatan empirikal Merupakan kombinasi deduktif dan induktif.

Sebabnya : Pengumpulan data secara induction alone (isolated knowledge) tak banyak memberi sumbangan kepada kemajuan pengetahuan dan banyak masalah tidak dapat diselesaikan secara induction semata-mata Satu proses yang mana penyelidik bergerak secara induktif daripada pemerhatian mereka kepada hipotesis dan kemudian secara deduktif dari hipotesis untuk implikasi logik tentang hipotesis. Penggunaan hipotesis adalah satu prinsip berbeza antara pendekatan saintifik dan inductive reasoning. Dalam induktif-seseorang terlebih dahulu membuat pemerhatian. Saintifik-hipothesis dahulu kemudian baru membuat pemerhatian. Kaedah Saintifik Sains adalah satu cara berfikir yang melibatkan hubungkait secara berterusan dan sistematik tentang pemikiran rasional dan pemerhatian empirikal. Enam komponen asas Sains iaitu; 1. Memahami sesuatu topik dan keutamaan penyelidikan terhadap topik tersebut. 2. Membangunkan soalan atau teori penyelidikan. 3. Membangunkan prosedur untuk menjawab atau menguji teori. 4. Merancang untuk, dan kemudian membuat pemerhatian empirikal yang sesuai. 5. Interpretasi rasional pemerhatian empirikal. 6. Menerbitkan/Menyebarkan penemuan dan interpretasi. Pendekatan empirikal Tentang Kenapa, Siapa, Bagaimana, dan Bila penyelidikan Kenapa: Mewujudkan keperluan untuk kajian, dan menjana satu siri keputusan yang diharapkan, atau hipotesis. Siapa: Populasi apa, dan sama ada populasi atau satu sampel. Bagaimana: Pemilihan pembolehubah untuk pemerhatian, dan bagaimana menganalisis statistik. Bila: Mewujudkan keperluan untuk kajian. Data yang diperlukan mungkin nombor atau naratif, bergantung kepada jenis penyelidikan; Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif. Empat Andaian Asas Sains 1. Adalah benar-kewujudan alam semesta 2. Alam semesta adalah satu sistem teratur 3. Prinsip-prinsip alam semesta yang teratur ini boleh diterokai, terutamanya melalui penyelidikan saintifik 4. Pengetahuan kita tentang alam semesta adalah tidak lengkap; i. Pengetahuan baru boleh, dan harus, mencetuskan idea-idea dan teori-teori semasa. Maka, ii. Semua pengetahuan dan teori adalah tentative. Lima langkah Inkuri Tipikal Saintifik 1. Mengenalpasti masalah Gangguan di sekolah 2. Mendefinisikan masalah menjelaskan apa sebenarnya masalah tersebut 3. Membina hipothesis- akanini adalah kebarangkalian (possibility) 4. Menjangkakan akibat (Project consequences)-tentang apa jika? Apa akan berlaku jika kita 5. Menguji hipotesis Rumusan Proses membaiki motosikal. Goes over the bump: misfire, go again misfire again, several times. Go over smooth stretch- nothing happen, go over bump- misfire again, then we can conlcude that misfiring was caused by bump. Ini adalah induktif Iaitu kita mula dengan pemerhatian baru kita buat keputusan. Katakan kita tidak boleh menghidupkan engine kereta. Kita tahu untuk menghidupkan kereta memerlukan kuasa yang dijanakan oleh bateri. Dengan itu jika bateri mati, maka kereta tak boleh dihidupkan. Dan ini adalah deduktif iaitu bermula dengan pengetahuan asas dan meramal pemerhatian khusus. Kekangan kaedah saintifik dalam sosial sains - Had Pendekatan Saintifik Subjek yang kompleks dengan subjek manusia Pembolehubah Sukar dalam membuat pengitlakan Kesukaran pencerapan/pemerhatian

Interpretasi subjektif Kesukaran mengulangi kajian Complexity of subject matter Difficulty in Observation Difficult in replication Interaction of observers and subjects Control problems Measurement problems Designs and methodological problems Impose of values

Had Pendekatan Saintifik Human beings (various charcteristics) Less objective. Own values and attitudes may have some influence Location, researcher, subjects experience and values May think that X causes Y. It may be their present that cause Y. Hawthorne experiment Lots of variable may influence the findings. Rigid control in impossible. Work under condition that is less precise, has to deal with many variables at one time Deals with validity and reliability of measurement Limitations of findings Subjective interpretation

Tingkah laku/Sikap Ahli Sains (Attitudes of scientists) Doubters who maintain a highly Finidngs are tenttative. Need verification. Need replication skeptical attitude toward the data of science Objective and impartial No perosonal bias. May discard the theory if enough eveidence to do so Deals with facts not values Do not make decision about what is good or bad. They provide data concerning the realtionship among events but you must go a step further to make decision Not satisfied with isolated facts Put things in an orderly system. Bring together the findings but seek to integrate and into a meaningdful pattern systematize their findings Peranan Teori Dalam Penyelidikan Teori menerangkan hubungan antara pemerhatian diskret. Tidak semua penyelidikan menguji atau membangunkan teori. Kebanyakan penyelidikan bersandar/bergantung kepada teori untuk membangunkan hipotesis. Teori sama ada: Deduktif Induktif Teori ke arah membangunkan hipotesis Teori dijana melalui pemerhatian diskret

Apa itu Teori Satu set konstruk (konsep) yang saling berkaitan, definisi, dan propositions yang menunjukkan satu pandangan sistematik tentang fenomena dengan mengkhususkan hubungan di kalangan pembolehubah, bagi tujuan menerangkan dan meramal fenomena tersebut. Teori terikat bersama hasil pemerhatian, yang membenarkan ahli sains membuat pernyataan umum tentang pembolehubah dan hubungan di kalangan pembolehubah. Tujuan Teori Menerangkan kenapa Meramal apa akan Mencadangkan kawalan 3.0 ETIKA DALAM PENYELIDIKAN

Apa yang tidak patut anda buat dalam penyelidikan?- Ini adalah apa yang kita panggil ETIKA DALAM PENYELIDIKAN 1. Etika dan penyelidik 2. Etika berhubung subjek kajian 3. Etika komuniti saintifik 4. Etika dan pembiayaan penyelidikan 1. Etika dan penyelidik i. Penyelidik sebagai individu Bermula dan berakhir dengan penyelidik Penyelidikan yang beretika mengambil masa untuk disempurnakan/disiapkan, kos kewangan lebih, lebih terperinci, and is more likely to be terminated before its completion.

Mengapa tidak beretika? Tekanan, gain prestige, mengagumkan orang dan banyak lagi.

ii.

i.

Salah- laku Saintifik (Scientific misconduct) Berlaku apabila seorang penyelidik memperincikan atau memesongkan data atau kaedah pengumpulan data atau plagariaszes penyelidikan yang dilakukan oleh orang lain. 2 kategori salah-laku saintifik iaitu; a. Penyelidikan Fraud Meniru/memalsukan atau mencipta data yang sebenarnya tidak dikutip atau kesalahan melaporkan bagaimana penyelidikan dijalankan. b. Plagiarim. Mencuri idea atau penulisan orang lain atau menggunakannya tanpa citing sumber tersebut. Kuasa Hubungan di antara penyelidik dan subjek atau pembentu melibatkan kuasa dan amanah/kepercayaan. Tidak sepatutnya berlaku salahguna kuasa dan kepercayaan oleh penyelidik terhadap subjek atau pembantu.

1. Etika berhubung subjek kajian i. Kecederaan fizikal/physical harm: Tidak sepatutnya menyebabkan kecederaan fizikal. Pertimbangkan risiko sebelum melakukan kajian. Tapis subjek berisiko tinggi jika melibatkan tekanan. Perlu menerima moral dan tanggungjawab sah bagi kecederaan disebabkan penglibatan dalam penyelidikan dan perlu menamatkan projek dengan segara jika anda tidak boleh member jaminan keselamatan kepada yang terlibat.

ii.

Penderaan psikologi/psychological abuse: Anda mungkin meletakkan seseorang dalam tekanan, rasa malu, menghasilkan keghairahan atau situasi yang tidak selesa. Jangan mencipta tekanan yang tidak sepatutnya melangkaui keperluan minima untuk mendapatkan kesan yang dikehendaki, tekanan tanpa arah terhadap tujuan penyelidikan. Mengetahui tentang jumlah keperluan yang minima datang bersama pengalaman. legal jeopardy: Lindungi subjek daripada meningkatkan risiko penangkapan terutamanya apabila anda menkaji tentang penjenayah. Memperhatikan tingkah laku salah mungkin pusat kepada satu projek penyelidikan. Jika anda membekalkan maklumat kepada pihak berkuasa, anda melanggar piawaian etika berkaitan subjek kajian dan menggagalkan penyelidikan masa depan. Lain-lain kecederaan subjek/Other harm to subjects: Misalnya meminta untuk mengingati semula peristiwa yang tidak menyenangkan. Kesan negatif terhadap kerjaya dan pendapatan mereka. Misalnya anda menjalankan kajian dan mendapati prestasi penyelia adalah lemah. Sebagai hasilnya, dia mungkin kehilangan kerja atau dipotong gaji. Penyamaran Jangan memaksa sesiapa untuk menyertai dan jangan berbohong kecuali ianya dikehendaki untuk alasan penyelidikan yang sah. Penyamaran mungkin meningkatkan salah laku dan menghilangkan kepercayaan awam. Persetujuan pemberitahuan (Informed Consent) Satu prinsip asas etika tentang penyelidikan sosial adalah jangan memaksa sesiapa untuk mengambil bahagian. Ia sepatutnya sukarela. Subjek perlu diberi penerangan supaya mereka boleh memberitahu keputusan.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

Kandungan Persetujuan Pemberitahuan 1. Satu penerangan terperinci tentang tujuan dan prosedur atau penyelidikan merangkumi tempoh kajian yang dijangkakan. 2. Satu penyataan tentang apa-apa risiko atau ketidakselesaan berkaitan dengan penyertaan (participation) 3. Satu jaminan tentang kerahsiaan identiti dan rekod sulit. 4. Pengenalan tentang penyelidik dan di mana mendapatkan maklumat tentang hak subjek atau soalan tentang kajian.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Satu penyataan tentang penyertaan secara benar-benar sukarela dan boleh ditamatkan pada bila-bila masa tanpa denda/hukuman. Satu penyataan tentang prosedur alternatif yang mungkin akan digunakan. Satu penyataan tentang apa-apa faedah atau pampasan yang disediakan kepada subjek dan bilangan subjek yang terlibat. Satu tawaran untuk menyediakan ringkasan penemuan.

Privacy, anonymity dan confidentiality

a. Privacy:Boleh dilanggar kepada darjah yang minima untuk tujuan penyelidikan yang sah. Lindung maklumat terhadap subjek penyelidikan daripada pendedahan awam.

b. Kerahsiaan identiti (Anonymity):Anonimiti bermaksua kekal rahsia dan tanpa nama. Lindung hak individu dengan tidak mendedahkan identiti subjek selepas maklumat dikumpulkan. Hapuskan nama dan lamat sebaik sahaja anda melengkapkan pengumpulan data dan rujuk subjek menggunakan kod nombor. Anda rahsiakan nama.

c. Kerahsiaan/Sulit (Confidentiality):Walaupun jika anonimiti adalah tidak mungkin, kerahsiaan harus dilindungi. Anonimiti melindungi identit individu khusus. Sulit bermakna menyimpan rahsia daripada umum. Maklumat mungkin mengandungi nama yang dilampirkan padanya. Maklumat adalah tidak dikeluarkan dalam cara kebenaran yang dikaitkan .. 1. Etika komuniti saintifik Prinsip asas etika penyelidikan sosial berdasarkan Pengisytiharan Hak Manusia oleh UN 1948 dan Pengisytiharan Helsinki 1964 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Tanggungjawab etika terletak kepada individu penyelidik. Jangan mengeksploitasi subjek atau pelajar untuk keuntungan peribadi. Sebahagian bentuk kebenaran persetujuan adalah sangat disyorkan dan diperlukan. Hormati semua jaminan tentang privasi, anonimiti dan kerahsiaan/sulit. Jangan memaksa atau menghina subjek. Gunakan penyamaran hanya jika diperlukan dan sentiasa mengiringinya dengan wawancara. Gunakan kaedah penyelidikan yang sesuai dengan topic. Mengesan dan menyingkirkan akibat yang tidak diperlukan terhadap subjek penyelidikan. Menjangkakan akibat atau mengumumkan hasil penyelidikan Kenalpasti penaja yang membiayai penyelidikan. Kerjasama dengan tuan rumah semasa menjalankan kajian komperatif. Siarkan secara terperinci tentang kajian dengan hasil. Buat interpretasi hasil yang konsiten dengan data Gunakan piawaian kaedah yang tinggi dan berusaha untuk ketepatan Jangan menjalankan penyelidikan rahsia.

2. Etika dan pembiayaan penyelidikan Anda mungkin diminta untuk bertolak ansur dengan etika atau standard penyelidikan professional sebagai satu syarat untuk mendapatkan sesuatu yang dijanjikan. Apa perlu anda lakukan? Anda mempunyai 3 pilihan; i. Kesetiaan terhadap organisasi atau kumpulan besar [beralah kepada penaja] ii. Keluar daripada situasi [berhenti], iii. Suara bangkangan [laporkan/whistle-blower] Tiba pada penemuan tertentu/Arriving at particular findings: Secara langsung atau tidak langsung anda diminta untuk hadir bersama penemuan yang diperlukan. Apa yang akan anda lakukan?

a. Had terhadap bagaimana untuk melakukan kajian/Limit on how to conductstudies. Bolehkah penaja menghadkan penyelidikan dengan menentukan apa yang boleh dikaji atau menghadkan teknik yang digunakan.Penaja boleh secara sah menetapkan keadaan ke atas

teknik penyelidikan yang digunakan dan menghadkan kos penyelidikan. Tetapi, penyelidik harus mengikuti kaedah penyelidikan umum yang diterima. Penyelidik harus menolak daripada meneruskannya jika tidak dapat berpegang kepada piawai umum penyelidikan yang diterima.

b. Mengelakkan daripada diketahui/Suppressing findingsApa akan berlaku jika penemuan bertentangan dengan kehendak penaja? Bukan kebiasaan dalam penyelidikan sosial. Runding keadaan untuk menerbitkan penemuan sebelum memulakan penyelidikan. Dan jika mungkin tanda tangan satu perjanjian tentang kesannya. Apa yang anda lakukan terhadap penemuan? 4.0 GARIS PANDUAN CADANGAN PENYELIDIKAN/OUTLINE OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL Muka hadapan Tajuk Nama penyelidik Nama organisasi Tarikh Bab 1; Pengenalan dan latarbelakang kajian Pengenalan-perlukan rujukan Pernyataan masalah-perlukan rujukan Objektif kajian Objektif umum Objektif khusus Soalan kajian/hipotesis-Bergantung kepada jenis kajian Kepentingan kajian Andaian dan batasan kajian Definisi opersional/konseptual/konstitutif Tinjauan kajian berkaitan (Literature review) Susun ikut tema dan urutan-dapatkan maklumat berkaitan kajian yang dicadangkan Lihat kepada pembolehubah anda-apa yang dikaji Rumuskan setiap bahagian Pastikan anda ada rujukan dalam literature Metodologi/Kaedah kajian Pengenalan-nyatakan apa yang akan dibincangkan dalam bab ini Kaedah kajian serta rekabentuk kajian berkenaan-apakah kaedah: pre-experiemental,..???? Tentukan rekabentuknya spt: pretest-posttest etc. Populasi, sampel, strategi persampelan Terangkan sasaran populasi anda-populasi yang boleh dicapai Berapa ramai dalam populasi Siapa sampel kajian-berapa bilangan Prosedur digunakan untuk menentukan saiz sampel Bagaimana sampel dipilih- Sesuaikan dengan objektif kajian Instrumen kajian: kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan Ujian rintis-Bagaimana anda menguji rintis instrument, jika anda melakukannya. Nyatakan bagaimana dapatan akan diperolehi Apa jenis instrument-terangkan instrumen kajian Terangkan bagaimana kebolehpercayaan dan kesahan ditentukan Pengumpulan data Proses Langkah diambil untuk mepastikan pulangan tinggi Penganalisisan Statitsik yang digunakan untuk menjawab soalan atau objektif yanga mana Letakkan secara tersusun dalam bentuk jadual

Bab 2;

Bab 3;

Bab 4;

Dapatan Kajian Terangkan dapatan berpandukan objektif Mesti terangkan secara deskriptif terlebih dahulu sebelum masuk secara inferential Bab 5; Rumusan, Perbincangan dan Cadangan Tulis ringkas kajian Bincangan dapatan kajian dan kaitkan dengan literature Berikan cadangan: Penyelidikan lanjutan

Pengamal/Practitioner Bibliography/rujukan5.0 BAHASA PENYELIDIKAN

Konstruk/Construct Abstraction tidak boleh dilihat secara langsung tetapi berguna dalam menginterpretasikan data empirikal dan dalam membangunkan teori. Manusia berbeza dalam apa yang mereka boleh pelajari dan seberapa cepat/pantas mereka boleh belajar. Saintis mencipta satu konstruk yang dipanggil kecerdasan (intelligence) Contoh lain: Motivasi, kesediaan membaca, ghairah, kelemahan, kreativiti, konsep kendiri, kematangan dan lain-lain. A. Mengkhususkan Maksud/Definisi Konstruk mungkin boleh dimaksudkan sebagai cara memberi makna umum atau mungkin boleh didefinisikan dalam istilah operasi melalui mana ianya akan diukur atau dimanipulasikan. Cara memberi maksud/definisi-2 cara iaitu; 1. Definisi secara Constitutive 2. Definisi secara Operational

1. Definisi secara ConstitutiveSatu jenis kamus tentang definisi atau definisi rasmi (formal) Contoh; Kecerdasan didefinisikan sebagai kemampuan untuk berfikir secara abstrak atau kapasiti mendapatkan pengetahuan. Kepentingan untuk memberi definisi adalah supaya pembaca tahu apa dimaksudkan oleh istilah dan membolehkan penyelidikan yang lain duplicate penyelidikan.

2. Definisi secara OperationalMembantu penyelidik merapatkan jurang antara teori dan pemerhatian. Definisi secara operasi-2 jenis iaitu; i. Definisi operasi pengukuran ii. Definisi operasi eksperimen

i.

Definisi operasi pengukuran: Memperincikan operasi yang mana penyelidik mengukur konstruk Contoh: Kecerdasan adalah skor ke atas Skala Kecerdasan Stanford-Binet. Jadi, apabila anda mendefinisikan konstruk dalam istilah bagaimana ianya diukur, anda tahu dengan tepat apa yang dimaksudkan oleh istilah tersebut.

ii.

Definisi operasi eksperimen Memperincikan langkah-langkah yang diambil untuk menghasilkan keadaan eksperimen tertentu. Contoh: Kekecewaan dalam kajian mungkin mengambil bentuk menghalang subjek daripada mencapai matlamat. Mengapa mendefinisikan konstruk secara operasi? a. Untuk membataskan istilah b. Memastikan orang lain faham cara tertentu sesuatu istilah digunakan c. Membenarkan penyelidik meneruskan penyelidikan yang mungkin tidak mustahil Contoh: Dalam amalan, penyelidikan tentang hubungan antara konstruk kreativiti dan konstruk kecerdasan merujuk kepada skor ke atas skor ujian kecerdasan untuk skor ke atas pengukuran kreativiti.

B. Pembolehubah/Variables Ciri-ciri yang mana individu atau objek boleh diterangkan. Ciri-ciri yang pelbagai dan boleh diletakkan secara continuum atau spectrum. Ciri-ciri yang boleh berubah dari semasa ke semasa untuk individu atau objek yang diberi. Terdapat variasi dalam lingkungan kelas atau subjek. Mesti mempunyai lebih daripada satu tahap.

Contoh: Untuk kajian kesan pengukuhan ke atas pencapaian pelajar. Pilih pelajar gred 9th Bahagikan ke dalam 3 kumpulan Guru memberi pengukuhan yang berbeza; Pujian secara lisan, ganjaran wang, markah tambahan. Jenis-jenis pembolehubah-5 jenis iaitu; 1. Pembolehubah Diskret/Kategorikal/Kualitatif 2. Pembolehubah Kuantitatif 3. Pembolehubah Tidak Bersandar (Independent Variable) 4. Pembolehubah Bersandar (Dependent Variable) 5. Pembolehubah Dimalarkan (Constant Variable) 1. Pembolehubah Diskret/Kategorikal/Kualitatif Hanya boleh diambil ke atas nilai khusus/tertentu Tidak berbeza dalam darjah, jumlah, kuantiti tetapi berbeza secara kualitatif Contoh paling mudah bagi pembolehubah kategorikal ialah: JANTINA: Lelaki VS Perempuan Apabila hanya terdapat 2 kategori maka ianya dikenali sebagai dichotomous Contoh lain; Status perkahwinan: Bujang-Kahwin-Janda/Duda Jenis pekerjaan: Guru-Doktor-Jurutera Lokasi kediaman: Bandar-Luar bandar Bangsa: Cina-Melayu-India Political pereference: MCA-BN-MIC-PR Warna rambut: Hitam-Perang-Putih Jenama kereta: Honda-Toyota-Suzuki-Perodua 2. Pembolehubah Kuantitatif Juga dikenali sebagai continous variable Ianya wujud dalam beberapa darjah sepanjang continuum dari kurang (less) kepada lebih (more) Nombor digunakan sebagai petunjuk seberapa besar pembolehubah pada kedudukannya Boleh diambil ke atas apa-apa nilai. Contoh; IQ: 70% - 77% - 80% (80% 70%) Umur: 6thn-7thn 3bln-5thn Tinggi: 152cm-183cm-177cm Berat:55kg-55.7kg-60.6kg 3. Pembolehubah Tidak Bersandar (Independent Variable) Jenis-jenis IV i. Sifat/Attribute: Pembolehubah yang tidak boleh dimanipulasikan. [Jantina, SES, IQ, Warna rambut dll] Juga dikenali sebagai assigned, measured, organismic, personological, sociological, psycho-sociological, demographic Sesetengah pembolehubah boleh dimanipulasikan tetapi tidak dimanipulasikan dalam penyelidikan tertentu. Contoh; Jenis kurikulum Bahagian-bahagian/Unit-unit dalam satu kursus Biasanya subjek memilih sendiri tahap IV atau berlaku secara semulajadi Sangat biasa dalam penyelidikan ex post facto ii. Active independent variable Juga dipanggil pembolehubah eksperimental, iaitu; a. Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan b. Pembolehubah rawatan Pembolehubah boleh dimanipulasikan dan dimanipulasikan dalam penyelidikan tertentu. Contoh: Kaedah mengajar Apa itu manipulasi? Tugasan rawak tentang unit-unit eksperimen atau subjek untuk peringkat IV. iii. Intervening variable, extraneous, confounding or contaminating variables Perkara memberi kesan kepada DV yang lain berbanding IV Disebabkan satu rawatan terhadap kesahan tentang kajian. Ini adalah masalah utama dalam apa-apa kajian. Contoh:

Ujian kebijaksanaan memberi kesan ke atas ujian prestasi. Kanak-kanak yang dihalang daripada mencapai matlamat mereka berkelakuan dengan tindakan yang lebih aggresif berbanding kanak-kanak yang tidak dihalang. Girls who plan to pursue careers in science are more aggressive, less conforming, more independent and have a greater need for achievement than girls who do not plan such careers Under intangible reinforcement conditiond, middle-class children will learn significantly better than lower-class children Students who have completed how to study course will make a significantly higher grade-point average than students who have never taken such a course Individual who graduate with Doctor of Education in educational administration attain better paying jobs than those who received a Doctor of Philosophy in educational administration Perceptions of the characteristics of the good or effective teacher are in part determined by the perceivers attitude toward education

1. Pembolehubah Bersandar (Dependent Variable) Variable that the independent variable is presumed to affect Variable that depends on independent variable Outcome variable Example: The amount of uneasiness that applicants for a position express in an interview How anxious students are before the examination Neatness Openness of a classroom Fluency in a foreign language Research in education may study the relationship between either (a) two or more quantitative variables, Age and amount of interest in school Reading achievement and mathematics achievement Classroom humanism and student motivation Amount of time watching television and agressiveness of behavior (b) one categorical and one quantitative variable Method used to teach reading and reading achievement Counselling approach and level of anxiety Nationality and liking for school Student gender and amount of praise given by teachers (c) two or more categorical variable Ethnicity and fathers occupation Gender of teacher and subject taught Administrative style and college major Religious affiliation and political party membership 1. Pembolehubah Dimalarkan (Constant Variable) A fixed value within the study, that is all members of the class are identical There is no variation No change of characteristics Example: Ugama yang dianuti Kecerdasan Kebersihan Komitment Warna mata/rambut Kepuasan bekerja Bangsa Tahap pendidikan Jantina Jenis pekerjaan SES Leadership style Curiousity Iklim sekolah Writing ability Kualiti sekolah Math ability Jenis sekolah Kecekapan CGPA Test anxiety Ketinggian Grade level Kepantasan berlari Kaedah mengajar Jenis kenderaan 6.0 MATLAMAT PENYELIDIKAN

A.

EXPLORATORY 1. BECOMES FAMILIAR WITH THE BASIC FACTS, 2. SETTINGS, CONCERNS 3. CrEAT A GENERAL MENTAL PICTURE OF CONDITIONS 4. FORMULATE AND FOCUS QUESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 5. GENERATE NEW IDEAS, OR HYPOTHESIS 6. DETERIMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH 7. DEVELOP TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING AND LOCATING FUTURE DATA DESCRIPTIVE PROVIDE A DETaILE, HIGHLY ACCURATE PICTURE LOCATE NEW DATA THAT CONTRaDICT PAST DATA CREATE A SET OF CATEGORIES OR CLASSIFY TYPES CLARIFY A SEQUENCE OF STEPS OR STAGES DOCUMENT A CAUSAL PROCESS OR MECHANISM REPORT ON THE BACKGROUND OR CONTEXT OF SITUATION EXPLANATORY TEST A THEORYS PREDICTION OR PRINCIPLES ELABORATE AND ENRICH A THEORYS EXPLANTION EXTEND THEORIES TO NEW ISSUES AND TOPICS SUPPORT OR REFUTE EXPLANATION OR PREDICTION LINK ISSUES OR TOPICS WITH GENERAL PRINCIPLES DETERMINE WHICH OF SEVERAL EXPLA NATIONS IS BEST.

B.

C.

TIME DIMENSION IN RESEARCH CROSS SECTIONAL TAKE MASUREMENT AT ONE POINT IN TIME. Kebiasannya kita menjalankan kajian sebegini LONGITUDINAL TIME SERIES PANEL STUDY COHORT Characteristics of research melibatkan pengumpulan data baru atau data yang sedia ada untuk tujuan baru (primary source or secondary source) mengarah kepada penyelesaian kepada pemasalahan or development of theories characterized by carefully designed procedures, always applying rigorous logical analysis place emphasis upon development of sound theories or upon the discovery of general principles that will be helpful in predicting future occurences require expertise involve accurate observation and description logical and objective, applying all possible test to validate the procedures employed, data collected, and the conclusion reached patients and unhurried activity require courage recorded and reported Research TOPIC Title: punyai kata kunci atau phrases bagi memberikan gambara jelas dan tepat tentang the scope and nature of the study and key word should allow bibliographer to index the stuy in a proper vategories. Should be able to indicate: Major variables being investigated THE NATURE OF RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY EX POST FACTO CORRELATIONAL EXPERIMENTAL TARGET POPULATION AVOID USING:

A STUDY OF An investigation of . A survey of ..

Examples of diss. Topics: Self-concept, social support systems, and career maturity of the female college student Career maturity, time perspective, and academic performance in College Assistance Migrant Program students The relationship between role learning and multiple-role realism. Career maturity and female student-athletes The relationship between the role salience of athletic identity and super's life roles in vocational maturity in collegiate student-athletes Factors that influence achievement of female administrators in higher education at eleven Southeastern research universities THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERCEIVED INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP SKILLS OF FOUR ELEMENTARY PRINCIPALS AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THEIR SCHOOLS (SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS) THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADVANCED DEGREES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND THE CAREER PATHS OF THE MALE AND FEMALE GRADUATES FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN FROM 1985-1990 (ILLINOIS) Example; The relationship (NATURE OF RESEARCH)between entrepreneurial success and need of achievement, locus of control, social networking, and educational level (VARIABLES BEING INVESTGATED)of AIM entrepreneurs in Kelantan (TARGET POPULATION) What is your topic of research? Identify your research topic Identify the type of research that seem most appropriate for the topic What is your population?

Table of contents: Abide by the recommended style Birds eye view of your thesis AbStract Write clearly and consisely as possible and must reflect the purpose (brief) , procedures (brief) and summary of major findings of the study. (Show example) CHAPTER 1 Need to include: Introduction Problem statement Objectives, research questions, and hypothesis (where applicable) Scope and significance of the study Definition of terms Theoretical framework of the study Chapter 1; Introduction Why important? provide readers with the necc background and setting to put problem in proper context let the readers see the basis of the study justify and convince the readers the the study is needed be factual statements, point-of vies shoud be documented (should have references) this is your sales pitch PROBLEM STATEMENT We want to be able to answer the so what question. Thus, the problem to investigated be meaningful. The problem must be clearly stated. You do not need to write pages Sources of the problem How do I find or where do I get? Common questions asked by many new reseachers. Three important sources of research problem; i. Experience ii. Deduction from theory iii. Related literature

i.

Experience Talk with academic staff Be alert to possible problems from seminars and courses Observation. Like you see of stress among school teachers. You may then formulate tentative explaination and test them empirically Deduction from theory: Theories involves general principles whose applicability to specific situation is only hypothetical untul research empirically confirm it. From theory you generate hypothesis and test the formulated hypothesis such as: Does watching violent scene on TV promote agressive behavior among teenagers? Then collect the data to substantiate your hypothesis Related Literature read critically- question concepts and statement in articles Questions methodologies check if here is any evidence to substantiate the position/claims Read research, review of research, and use computerised search

ii.

iii.

Evaluating research problem Adakah ia menyumbang kepada pengetahuan dalam bidang pendidikan (Significant)? Memperbanyakan lagi fakta bagi sesuatu isu? Memperkukuhkan lagi dapatan yang telah lalu? Mempekukuhkan lagi teori pendidikan ? Menyelesaikan masalah ketidak selarasan hasil kajian lalu? Adakah ia menghasilkan peralian baru antara suatu pembolehubah dengan pembolehubah yang lain? Mesti boleh menjawab soalan , SO? Tentukan kepentingan hasil kajian ini kepada teorist dan pengamal pendidikan? Jangan pilih masalah yang trivial yang tidak ada kepentingan atau yang mana jawapan boleh diperolehi tanpa melalui kajian. Masalah tadi boleh menghasilkan masalah kajian baru yang menggalakkan kajian lanjutan. Kajian yang baik akan dapat menyelesaikan masalah yang ingin diselesaikan. Pada masa yang sama persoalan baru akan timbul dan memerlukan kajian lanjutan atau tambahan. Masalah yang dipilih mestilah boleh dikaji Misalnya : perlukah pengetua mengamalkan kepemimpinan transformational? Perlukan guruguru komited kepada tugas mereka? (ianya melibatkan isu philosophical/values) ubah kepada bentuk yang membolehkan kita dapat data secara empirik. Misalnya; What is the relationship beteween transformational leadership and teachers job satisfaction? What are the factors related to the use of transformational leadership by the school principals? Penyelidik juga perlu beri perhatian kepada takrifan dan pengukuran pembolehubah yang akan dikaji. Misalnya what changes will occur as a result of participating in cocurricluar activities? Changes: what is it? How do we define changes? Jadi masalah yang boleh dikaji ada kaitan dengan pemboleh ubah itu sendiri/ adakah pembolehubah itu dapat diukur? Jika boleh bagaimana mengukurnya? Masalah mestilah serasi dengan penyelidik berkenaan. mestilah sesuai dengan kebolehan serta pengetahuan penyelidik. Penyelidik mesti mempunyai kemahiran yang tinggi dalam menjalankan kajian yang telah dipilihnya. Adakah penyelidik berminat dengan masalah yang akan dikaji? Kalau tak berminat mungkinkah anda akan meluangkan masa untu kajian berkenaan. Kita sendiri mestilah setelah selesai kajian merasa kepuasannya. Kita merasa bangga dengan hasil kajian ini Fikirkan tentang subject kajian. Fikirkan tentang masa untuk kajian Fikirkan tentang peruntukan kewangan Is the problem researchable (clarity)?

Philosophical issues cannot be answered by scientific inquiry. Like should we provide needles and condoms to drug addicts? But, what is the effect of on the spread of HIV. So you have to do some manipulation to the philosophiocal issues Resources available? time money knowledge and skills Should be ethically appropriate Consent Protection from harm privacy Contoh pemasalahan kajian: Nak kaji keberkesanan kurikulum baru sains di sekolah menengah (general idea) Define what is meant by effectiveness? What is mean by new science curriculum? What is mean by secondary school? Setelah diberi takrifan, masalah kajian yang asal akan berubah menjadi misalnya> WHAT IS THE EFFECT Of COMPUTER ASSISTED PHYSIC COURSE IN THE COMPREHENSION OF PHYSIC CONCEPTS OF FORM FOUR STUDENTS Jadi apabila kita dah fokuskan masalah kajian ini maka penyelidik boleh tentukan bentuk kajian yang akan dijalankan. Dalam kes ini kajian yang sesuai ialah kajian experimental. Gunakan randomised pretest posttest control group design R O1 X1 O2 R O3 X2 O4 Try not have too general the problem and too specifik Too general loose fokus. Too spesifik loose importance Should the proble be stated in questions form or declarative statement? Yo can have both> Berikan declarative statement then folowed by question form. Does individual tutoring by upper grade students have a positive effect on below-average readers? What is the population? What is the variable? Is the variable too general? If yes what to do? What is the independent and dependent variables? What is meant by positive effect? Among below average second- grade readers, is there a difference in CAT reading scores between those who have received 15 minuts per day of individual word flash drill by uppergrade students and those who have recived no word drill? Masalah yang dipilih juga perlu mengenalpasti pembolehubah kajian, populasi kajian kaedah kajian yang akan dijalankan lain-lain panduan: masukan juga statistics yang terdapat untuk menguatkan penyataan masalah berkenaan Criteria for research problem statement Clarify what is to be investigate-variables, population (need to define the variables) State the relationship between variables. It is stated in a declartive form not in question form Should be states in a way that research into the question is possible- must be able to collect data to answer the question Example; Should philosophy (value)be included in high school curriculum? Or what is the meaning of life (Metaphysic; that is beyond the physical)? (Cant collect Empirical data) But you can change; Do people think Philosophy should be included in the curriculum OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES Objectives: This what you want to accomplish through research. It is a research objectives. Example: to find out why students are not performing well in class.

This is not what you intend to do to solve the problem. You cant write Objectif kajian ini ialah untuk menyediakan module latihan. This is not the research objective. This is the product of the reseach Have to write general objective as well as specific objectives Specific objectives may be written in; (1) question forms (2) hypothesis Depending on the type of research. Descriptive - research questions Ex post facto and experiemental - hypothesis However, people normally write specific objectives in objectives forms. Then they will poceed with writing research questions or hypothesis Objectives (G & S) are best located after the problem statement Characteristics of specific objectives specifically identify the variables being investigated instead of achievement of students use specific operational definition like GPA, Score on test instead of charactersitics of students write like age, sex, grade level, SES If specific relationship being investigated, should state what variables are being related to what variables Indicate the nature of the relationship being investigated (explantory or cause effect) PENCAPAIAN OBJEKTIF KURIKULUM BERSEPADU SEKOLAH RENDAH DI KALANGAN PELAJAR BERMASALAH PENDENGARAN DALAM PROGRAM PERCANTUMAN PENDIDIKAN KHAS OBJEKTIF KAJIAN: Objektif umum kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti pencapaian objektif KBSR oleh murid program percantuman masalah pendengaran dari aspek guru besar, guru, suasana tugas, komitmen dan kemuduhan Contoh-contoh soalan kajian: Apakah persepsi guru besar program percantuman masalah pendengaran terhadap pelaksanaan pengajaran dan pembelajaran? Adakah terdapat hubungan antara umur dan pengalaman guru pendidikan khas masalah pendengaran dengan pelaksanaan pengajaran dan pembelajaran? Adakah terhadapt hubungan antara umur dan pengalaman guru pendidikan khas masalah pendengaran dengan suasana tugas mereka? Adakaha terdapat hubungan di anatara umur dan pengalaman guru pendidikan khas masalah pendengaran dengan tahap kemudahan yang disediakan? PERSEPSI GURU TERHADAP DISIPLIN PELAJAR DALAM KEPEMIMPINAN PENGETUA SEKOLAH-SEKOLAH MENENGAH DI DAERaH KOTA BAHARU, KELANTAN Objektif umum: Dapat mengetahui persepsi guru terhadap kepimpinana pengetua dalam menangani masalah disiplin pelajar di sekolah Objektif Khusus: Perspsi guru terhadap faktor pelajar melanggarmasalah disiplin di sekolah Persepsi guru terhadap peranan mereka terhadap disiplin pelajar Persepsi guru terhadap implementasi hukuman yang dijalankan di sekolah Persepsi guru terhadap kepemimpinan pengetuan dalam menggalakkan penglibatan ibu bapa CONCEPTUALIzING CHANGE ON THE WWW: CAPTURING THE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH IN WEBBASED LEARNING AMONG ENGINEERING LECTURERS Objectives General: the general objective of the study is to examine the ways to incorporate the constructivist theory into web-based learning and teaching by engineering lecturers in the polytechniques. This will provide direction that not only help learners accomplish instructional objectives, but more importantly helps them become more successful, continual on-line learners specifically, to describe the general pattern of usage of the WWW among engineering lecturers to study the extent of influence of various independent variables on the adoption of the WWW by engineering lecturer to relate the extent of the WWW usage with the application of constructivist approach by engineering lecturer to develop a simple path model connecting all the variables under investigation Research questions: What is the pattern of web-based learning maong lecturers at politeknik?

What are the engineering lecturer doing to upgarde themselves? How do engineering lecturers adopt and utilize the internet and its resources into the curr? To what extent do organizational factors influence the use of www by engineering lecturers to supplement their teaching learning tasks? What is hypothesis? A prediction A tentative solution or expected answer to the question Is a tool in the research process not the ends in themselves Why have hypothesis? To show that the researcher has sufficient knowledge in the area Gives direction to the collection and interpretation of data, reporting and conclusion Methods or research Sample statistics What is the effect of preschool training on the achievement of culutral disadvantage children in first grade? Culturally disadvantage children who has had preschool training achieve at a higher level than those who have not had preschool training Provide a relational statements that are directly testable in the study Question cant be tested. Is the feedbact given by teachers beneficial for students? What statistics do we want to use? Chenge it into hypothesis: There is a relationship between teachers feedback and students achievement Students who received feedback from teachers obtained a significantly higher academic CGPA that those who do not. To stimulate research endeavour that result in the accumulation of new knowledge Types of hypotheses: i. Research hypothesis: hypothesis derived from theory or literature Also known as scientific hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, or control hypotheses They are stated in the proposal ii. Alternatif hypothesis is the hypothesis that is accepted when null hypothesis is rejected WHEN WE TEST HYPOTHESIS WE ACTUALLY WANT TO NULLIFY THE NULL HYPOTHESIS. WE ACTUALLY TEST THE NULL HYPOTHESIS NOT THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Kita nak mengatakan bahawa dalam populasi memang terdapat perbezaan pencapaian (misalnya). Kita nak mengatakan bahawa dalam populasi memang ada perbezaan skor ujian. Kita nak mengatakan bahawa dalam poluasi memang terdapat hubungan anatara jenis feed yang diberikan kepada lembu-lembu dan pertambahan berat badan lembu berkenaan. Kita nak katakan bertambahanya baja yang kita berikan kepada tanaman maka akan bertambahan hasil tanaman bekenaan. Null hypothesis: also known as statistical hypotheses Hypotheses of no difference or no relationship Not stated in research proposal Ho: THERE IS NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND ONES WEALTH Ha: THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND ONES WEALTH Null hipotesis mungkin benar dan juga mungkin tidak benar. Dengan munggunakan statistik inference penyelidik akan membuat keputusan untuk menerima atau menolak hipothesis berkenaan. Misalnya kita membuat andaian bahawa dalam populasi adalah bersamaan 100 (H o: m =100). Sekiranya kita menolak Ho: =100 kita mengatakan bahawa dalam populasi 100. Hypothesis can be written in directional and non-directional format Directional (One-tail) Ways of stating one-tail for continous and categorical variables When it is appropriate o use one-tail test Non-directional hypotheses (two tail hypotheses) Examples of directional hypotheses There is a positive relationship between the amount of study time and grade-point average Girls obtained a significantly higher scores on mathematic test than boys did Kawasan penolakan Kawasan penerimaan

T=10.00

T=6.314 Example of non-directional hypotheses There is a relationship between study time and CGPA The CGPA of both male and female students differ significantly T=10.00

T=12.706 Lets take the value of t at 1 df at .05 for one-tail is 6.314 The value of t at 1 df at .05 for two-tail is 12.706 Now lets assume your calculated t is 10.00 Which hypothesis is much easier to be rejected True Null Type I error Correct False Null Correct Type II error

DECISION Reject Retain

Rejecting true null is a serious offense. Why? Apakah kesanya jika kita tolak null hipotesis? Kita nak accept the true null hipotesis Tambah keyakinan dalam membuat keputusan Falsely rejecting a true Ho is called a TYPE I ERROR (finding an innocent person guilty). The probability of committing a type I error is always equal to alpha. Failure to reject a false Ho is called a TYPE II ERROR (finding a guilty person innocent). Type I error Type I error occurs when we reject the null hypothesis when in fact, the null hypothesis should be retained. Example a researcher might have concluded that the treatment works where in fact in reality the observe difference might be due to sampling error. We do not want to make type I error often because we will be making incorrect decision. Consider a case in a drug experiment in which the researcher concluded that the new medication works significantly better than the placebo. Yet, this conclusion was a type I error. This is the mistake most researcher would not want to make. To avoid a type I error a statistical model has been developed whereby the researchers have control over the probability of making type I error. At alpha .05, the error is 5% of all cases. At .01, the error is 1% of all cases. Thus at .05, 5 errors will be made in 100 cases. At .01, 1 error will be made in 100 cases. Type II error Making type I error is embarrassing and we should try to avoid it. Yet in the process we may increase the chance of making type II error. That is we retain the null hypothesis when in fact the hypothesis was wrong. In other words, the treatment actually works. If we are very conservative we set alpha at a very low level, we may have a very strong chance of making type II error. So manipulation of alpha can reduce type I but at the same time will increase Type II

In many parts of the world the arrival of rats on islands can be disastrous for ground nesting birds. The YYY islands in the ++++ support the largest population of the ship rat Rattus rattus remaining in the United Kingdom. The islands also support 60,000+ pairs of breeding puffin Fratecula arctica. It has been suggested that the rats are responsible for a decline in the puffin on the Shiants. Suppose we decide to test this theory by experimentation. We begin by setting up two hypotheses: Ho : the rats have no significant effect on puffin numbers H1 : the rats have a significant effect on puffin numbers. Depending on the outcome of our experiment a rat eradication programme will be started. What are the consequences of type I and Type II errors in this situation? If Ho is true the rats have no significant effect on the puffin, but somehow we reject the true null hypothesis, we commit type I error. A Type I error means that we will begin a costly eradication of the United Kingdom's most significant population of this mammal even though it is doing no harm. If Ho is false, it means the rats are having an effect on the puffin but we fail to reject, we commit type II error. A Type II error means that we will do nothing to the rats and the puffin decline will continue We begin our analysis by assuming that the Ho is true. This is analogous to the presumption of innocence if you are committed for trial. If the Ho is true, what is the biggest difference between the sample means that can occur by chance at a reasonable level of probability? In other words, how different can we expect means to become simply as a result of chance? If the observed difference is less than this chance amount we have insufficient evidence for an effect since the difference could have arisen by chance. In such circumstances we must conclude that there is no significant difference between the two mean values. Again this analogous to finding someone innocence if there was insufficient evidence of guilt According to the rules of significance testing we must establish a strict criterion for rejection of the null hypothesis. If P is true is less than alpha we can reject Ho and accept Ha. If we reject Ho we are reasonably confident that a real difference exists, (there is evidence beyond 'reasonable doubt to presume guilt). So to reduce type II as well as to reduce type I, use a large sample size. The larger the sample size, the larger will be the probability of making a correct decision. Type II error That is we retain the null hypothesis when in fact the hypothesis was wrong. In other words, the treatment actually works. If we are very conservative we set alpha at a very low level, we may have a very strong chance of making type II error. So manipulation of alpha can reduce type I but at the same time will increase Type II Type I error Type I error occurs when we reject the null hypothesis when in fact, the null hypothesis should be retained. Example a researcher might have concluded that the treatment works where in fact in reality the observe difference might be due to sampling error. We do not want to make type I error often because we will be making incorrect decision. Contoh hipotesis: A particular feed ration will increase the weight of steers The use of new foot ware will increase ones running speed If one use a certain type of textbook (A) the chances to pass will be greater compared to other type of textbook (B) The correlation coefficient in the population is zero Mean in the population is zero The slope of the regression is zero The difference between the two means is zero Characteristics of quality hypothesis: 1. Mempunyai kuasa penerangan (explanatory power) should be able to explain the intended relationship between variables there is a relationship between number of votes obtained by a candidate of party A and the cuaca pada hari pengundian.

there is relationship between number of votes obtained by a candidate of party A and voters satisfactions towards certain issues Nasi tak masak sebab tak ada sayur Nasi tak masak sebab air tak cukup Tempahan kereta baru merosot sebab komisyen kepada jurujual kereta di hapuskan (inverse relationship) 2. Must state the expected relationship identify the variables (specifically and operationally) state direction (negative/positive/no-direction) the car will not start and it has a wiring problem is there a proposed relationship? The car will not start because of fault in wiring system If children differ from one onother in self-concept, they will differ from one another in social achievement study. Is there an expected realtionship? It look like it has. There is positive relationship between self-concept and social studies achievement is there an expectd relationship? 3. Must be tetable Kita perlu boleh lihat sebab/kesan /hubungan akibat daripada apa yang dihipotesiskan melalui cerapan/observation Tanah runtuh because an act of god. Can we test? Tanah runtuh disebabkan oleh ground movement/ banyak penebangan pokok/hujan lebat . Is it more meaningful/testable? There is a relationship between penglibatan dalam rakan muda and youth development well it is hypothesis, but is it testable? To be testable, a variable can be measured. So have to operationally defined the variables Please avoid using value statements A counseling program in elementary school is desirable Elementary school children ho have had counseling will probably express greater satisfaction with their schools than those . You can measure satisfaction , but whether it is desirable or not is value judgement 4. CONSISTENT WITH THE EXIXTING BODY OF KNOWLEDGE jangan kontradict the existing theory or knowledge my car will not start because the fluid in the battery has changed into gold The car does not start because the fluid in the battery has evaporated Try to establish hypotheses that are in agreement with the existing knowledge terutama seklai jika kita adalah a novice researcher Review the literature thoroughly so that the hypotheses will be formlated based on reported research in the area 5. SIMPLE AND CONSISE It make the testing much esier Provide a clear and easily comprehend report Need to break general hipoteSis into sevaral smallr hipotheses Try to have several specifik hypotheises gunakan term yang mudah difahami The socio economic status of the family plays a part in determining the degree of conformity experienced by adolescents in vafious social context, and the various components of these social status differ in the extent of their effects upon his attitudes to authority; Specific: Attitudes towards authorityat home and SES Attitudes towards authority at school and SES Attitudes towards authority.. with peers and SES Attitudes towards authority.. and father education The objectives of the study was to determine the factors associated with secondary school teachers job satisfaction. Specifically, the study was conducted to acheiev these objectives: determine the relationship between gender and job satisfaction determine the relationship between academic qualification and job satisfaction determine te amount of teaching load and job satisfaction. Etc. 1. nyatakan hipotesis nul dan juga alternatif hipothesis H0=0 H1 0

Tiada perbezaan pencapaian antara pelajar lelaki dan pelajar perempuan dalam kursus matematiks (null) Penacapain pelajar lelaki dan perempuan dalam kursus matematik adalah berbeza ( alternatif/ hipotesis kajian) We want to disapprove the null hypothesis. We want to go for the alternatif hypothesis so that we can conduct some programs to enrich the learning of either group. Tetapi kita tidak mahu membuat keputusan tanpa bukti yang kukuh. 2.PIliH ARAS KEYAKINAN (significant level)- Memilih tahap genting Kita mestilah tetapkan syarat untuk menolak null hipothesis. Kita nak mengatakan bahawa kita mempunyai penuh keyakinan bahawa null hipotesis adalah salah dan kita nak tolak null hipotehis ini. Kita beri kelonggaran sebanyak 5% sahaja bahawa null adalah benar dan 95% lagi mengatakan null adalah salah. JIKA NULL ADALAH BENAR KITA AKAN TERIMA DAN JIKA NULL ADALAH SALAH KITA AKAN TOLAK. Kita tidak mahu tolak null yang benar. Jika kita tolak null yang benar kita membuat satu kesilapan yang besar (costly mistake) . We set at 0.05 or 0.01. The smaller the value of alpha the stronger is the case against the null. Misalnya kita mencipta ubatan dan mengatakan ubatan berkenaan tidak ada kesan sampingan kepada manusia. Dalam kes ini kita kalau boleh ujian mestilah lebih stringent atau lebih ketat (.05/.01). Katakan kita test at 0.10 (90% confident that there is no side effect on human being. Kita mungkin dengan lebih senang menerima null yang mengatakan tidak ada kesan sampingan We want to be very-very sure that the ubat berkenaan tidak ada side effect sebelum dipasarkan. Alpha juga dikenali sebagai Ralat Jenis I (Type I error). Iaitu ralat menolak null hipothes sedangkan null berkenaan adalah benar. Jadi kalau kita besarkan alpha (dari 0.05 atau 0.01 ke 0.10) maka the risk is greater may be by 10%. Lebih senang bagi kita menolak the true null hypothesis. [Dalam menguji hipothesis kita nak tolak the false null hipothesis dan terima true null hipotesis]. Jika kita terima false null hypothesis kita dikatakan membuat kesilapan Ralat jenis II (Type II error). 3. Pilihlan tabuRAn UJIAn yang akan digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis yang telah ditetapkan tadi. (Choose the test distribution) Ujian statistiks akan menentukan samada Null boleh DITOlak atau diterima. Kita boleh menggunakan nilai t, nilai z atau boleh gunakan c 2. 4. Define the rejection region or critical region (rantau genting) Seandainya kita telah nyatakan aras genting (alpha=.05) maka kita tidak akan menerima null hipothesis sekiranya perbezaan min (misalnya ) mempunyai 5% atau kurang wujudnya. If the test statistics fall within the acceptance region, bermaksud kita accept the null hipotesis. Iaitu bila test statistics adalah lebih kecil daripada critikal value of the test. 5. Lakukan ujian statistik Kita boleh menggunakan samada taburan t atau taburan z bergantung kepada saiz sampel (n). Sekiranya n < 30 kita akan menggunakan taburan t. Sekiranya n> 30 kita akan menggunakan taburan z . Satu lagi kriteria untuk menentukan samada taburan z atau taburan t akan digunakan ialah nilai sisihan piawai ( ) sampel berkenaan. Sekiranya diketahui statistik z akan dugunakan. Sekiranya tidak diketahui maka anggaran s perlu digunakan. Tetapi untuk mengiranya anggaran s, terlebih dahulu perlu diketahui . 6. MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN STATISTIK Jika setelah buat pengiraan kita dapati nilai yang dikira jatuh dibawah rejection region maka H o mestilah ditolak. sEKIRANYA NILAI YANG DIKIRA JATUH DI DALAM acceptance region maka h o mestilah diterima. There is a relationship between study time and CGPA The CGPA of both male and female students differ significantly T=10.00

T=12.706 The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

Is there a relationship between gender and job satisfaction? Are teachers under the supervision of school principle practicing transformational leadership were more committed towards the profession than those supervised using transactional leadership? Do students CGPA differ across races? Is there a relationship between students self-efficacy and career interest? Is there a relationship between SES and career interest? Do students from school A have a better academic achievement that students from school B? Is there a relationship between location of school and academic achievement? Is there a relationship between teachers gender and students achievement? Is there a relationship between class size and course grade? Is there a relationship between work experience and CGPA Is the language of instruction related to students course grade? Your duty is to transform them into null hypotheses and research hypotheses Why again test hypothesis? Tujuan utama kita menguji hipotesis ialah untuk membuat keputusan samada hipotesis statistik boleh diterima atau ditolak. Apabila nilai keberangkalian (p) dari sample adalah lebih kecil daripada risiko maksima ( ) yang telah ditentukan, maka hipotesis statistik perlu ditolak. REVIEWING THE LITERATURE Cant find the literature Common complaint; couldt find anything in the literature that is related to their studies cant find exactly the same topic The role of related literature 1. Define the frontiers of knowledge A has discovered this, B has discovered this, so what is left for you to discover? 2. Enable the researcher to place their questions in perpective Any aditional knowledge in a meaningful way? Any link between your study and the body of knowledge? 3. Relate the proposed study with the previous study [should remember the main purpose of the study is to add more knowledge to the field not to produce isolated knowledge. The question is where do you fit in the picture? What and how much new knowledge will I add to the existing knowledge?] 1. Limit their research questions, clarify, and define the concepts of the study may be too broad, vague. Look at how others have defined certain constructs being investigated (stress, aggression, adjustment ; need to be defined and clarified) 2. Lead to insights into the reasons for contradictory results in the area Look at the theory, instruments, methodologies, data analyses 3. Learn which methodologies have proven useful and which seem less promising To avoid unintentional replication of previous studies Put you in a better position to interpret the significance of your own results Sources of literature Encyclopedia of Educational Research (1992) Present critical synthesis and interpretation of reported educational research International Encylopedia of Educational Evaluation ERIC database Index of dissertation and Theses (DAI) ProQuest Digital Dissertation Social Science Citation Index Government Publication (Economic Report) WWW Need to check for the authentecity of the literature Accuracy of the literature Timeliness of the literature So what to do??? 1. Organizing literatur

The hypothesis, the variables being investigated provide the framework for the organization of literature. It should lay a systematic foundation for the study. Should begin with theoretical background related to the study [start from broad and narrow it down] Look at your hypotheses and variables being investigated 2. Organizing the related literature Begin with the most recent Read the abstract or summary section of report Skim the report prior to taking notes Make notes should be easily accessible Write the reference for the notes Review the theories to be used for your study Review previous studies related to your study Identify the variables being investigated Do not separate local and foreign literature Are the literature related to the study Concentrate your effort on the scientific literature Review early Summarize Writing references

8.0

PENDEKATAN PENYELIDIKAN/KAJIAN (Research Approach)KUANTITATIF Experimental Ex Post Facto Correlational Survey KUALITATIF Pre experiment True Experiment Quasi Experiment

Jenis-Jenis Penyelidikan/Kajian: Untuk menjadi biasa dengan fenomena, untuk mendapatkan pandangan baru, untuk merumuskan masalah kajian yang lebih khusus atau hipotesis kajian (menggunakan soalan-soalan atau tujuan-tujuan kajian. Listen Read phonetically Untuk menggambarkan secara tepat kejadian, pengedaran, dan ciri-ciri satu kelompok atau situasi (biasanya tidak bermula dengan hipotesis yang khusus; menggunakan soalan atau tujuan kajian. Untuk menyiasat hubungan antara pembolehubahpembolehubah (Bermula dengan hipotesis khusus). Untuk menguji hipotesis tentang hubungan kausal antara pembolehubahpembolehubah.

EXPLORE

DESCRIBE Descriptive [PRE EXPERIMENTAL] SURVEY RESEARCH

EXPLAINPREDICT CONTROL

Rekabentuk Kajian Eksperimental (Experimental Research Designs) - mempunyai 2 tujuan iaitu; 1. untuk menyediakan jawapan bagi soalan-soalan kajian/penyelidikan 2. ...untuk mengawal varians (perbezaan) -Fungsi utama Rekabentuk Kajian Eksperimental adalah untuk mengawal varians.

Prinsip: Memaksimakan varians sistematik, meminimakan ralat varians dan mengawal extraneous systematic variance (MAX-MIN-CON) - dengan kata lain mengawal varians. Oleh kerana itu penyelidik cuba untuk:

memaksimumkan varians dari pembolehubah (s) dari hipotesis kajian (iaitu, memaksimumkan perbezaan dalam DV [hasil] yang disebabkan oleh memaksimumkan perbezaan dalam IV [rawatan]. mengawal varians asing (EV) atau pembolehubah "tidak diingini" yang mungkin mempengaruhi hasil kajian, tapi yang tidak diminati oleh penyelidik (menyekat faktor-faktor selain rawatan (IV) yang boleh menyebabkan perbezaan keputusan (DV) meminimumkan ralat atau varians rawak (iaitu, mengelakkan instrumen pengukuran yang tidak dipercayai yang mempunyai ralat tinggi dalam pengukuran). Listen Read phonetically

Memaksimakan Varians Eksperimental: -varians eksperimental : Varians disebabkan manipulasi (i.e., rawatan) atau sifat (i.e., jantina) persepsi pembolehubah kajian (IV): -Andaian penyelidik; merekabentuk, merancang dan menjalankan kajian sehingga keadaan kajian adalah berbeza yang mungkin terhadap IV. Control of Extraneous Variables (EV) eliminate the variable (i.e., if you are worried about gender, only include one gender in the study). randomization (i.e., if you randomly assign subjects to groups, the extraneous variable should be equally distributed among the groups) build it into the design make it a moderator variable (i.e., if you are worried about gender, build it into the analysis [2-way ANOVA]well learn about this later) match subjects (i.e., match the characteristics of subjects and put one of each matched pair in each group) statistically equate groups (i.e., use ANCOVA [Analysis of Covariance] to analyze the data with the extraneous variable used as a covariatewell learn about this later) Meminimumkan Ralat Varians mempunyai Dua Aspek Prinsip: i. Mengurangkan ralat pengukuran melalui kawalan keadaan (i.e., mempiawaikan prosedur-prosedur ujian) ii. Meningkatan kebolehpercayaan pengukuran (i.e, menyemak semula instrumen ujian atau mencari instrumen yang lebih kebolehpercayai). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED TO ENSURE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL VALIDITY OF THE STUDY Internal Validity: Are the results of the study (DV) caused by the factors included in the study (IV) or are they caused by other factors (EV) which were not part of the study? INTERNAL VALIDITY (KESAHAN DALAMan HASIL KAJIAN). Does the treatment affect the dependent varibale or so other things affect the dependent variable?? Misalnya Pelajar Yang Diajar Dengan Kaedah Inquiri Mendapat Keputusan Yang Lebih Tinggi (Test On Critical Thinking) Berbanding Pelajar Yang Diajar Dengan Kaedah Lecture. Is the difference on achievement due to method of teaching (inquiry vs lecture methods? What if they are better critical thinkers to begin with? What if they also taking related course? What if the teacher is a better teacher than the other teacher? Hipotesis: For educationally handicapped students, failure rate is related to amount of disruptive behavior. High correlation, so what? Can it be because of something else such as educational ability? Observed difference is directly related to the variables under investigation to be INTERNALLY VALID. kajian menunjukkan wujudnya korelasi yang tinggi (r=.8) di antara ketinggian pelajar dan skor pencapaian dalam ujian matematik bagi pelajar sekolah rendah. Ini bermakna semakin tinggi pelajar semakin tinggi pula pencapaiannya. Apa ertinya disini? Bolehkah ia membawa perubahan kepada amalan di sekolah? Atau amalan pemakanan?

Threats to Internal Validity There are 16 common threats to internal validity. 1. Subject Characteristics (Selection Bias/Differential Selection) -- The groups may have been different from the start. If you were testing instructional strategies to improve reading and one group enjoyed reading more than the other group, they may improve more in their reading because they enjoy it, rather than the instructional strategy you used. SUBJEK KAJIAN SEMEMANGNYA BERBEZA DARI AWAL LAGI. PERBEZAAN ADALAH TIDAK RAWAK. Misalnya korelasi tinggi antara disruptive behaviour dan kadar kegagalan. Siapa subjek kajian? How about academik ability subject berkenaan? Lain-lain contoh ciri termasuklah: umur, KEKUATAN, kematangan, gender, Ethnik, KECErDASAN, SIKAP, Kebolehan/Keupayaan dan banyak lagi. What to do? Pilih rekabentuk yang sesuai. Jika buat bandingan kumpulan pastikan kedua-dua kumpulan ada persamaan. Gunakan teknik statistiks yang sesuai bagi penyelidikan korelasi misalnya partial correlation 2. Loss of Subjects

Listen Read phonetically

(Mortality) -- All of the high or low scoring subject may have dropped out or were missing from one of the groups. If we collected posttest data on a day when the honor society was on field trip at the treatment school, the mean for the treatment group would probably be much lower than it really should have been. Kesan yang serious jika kita buat perbandingan kumpulan (dua kaedah mengajar bagi dua kumpulan) apabila bilangan subjek hilang daripada satu kumpulan adakah lebih besar daripada kumpulan lain. (expect poor students to leave in every group) but if > in one group than the other? One of the methods may appear more effective than the other. Paling sukar dikawal!!!!!! How to overcome? Berikan maklumat bahawa subjek yang terciri adalah serupa seperti subjek yang ada. How? Pretest score, ciri-ciri demografi atau lain-lain variable yang ada kaitan dengan kajian. Cuba halang keciciran atau minimize the loss, but how? Masa kajian sesuai atau tidak? (hampir perayaan, waktu tamat sekolahan) Subjek kajian sesuai atau tidak? (senior students selected too? May be too many of them 20-30%--control group)Effect of new diet on endurance Masa untuk menjawab soal-selidik panjang atau tidak? Soal-selidik senang difahami atau tidak? 1. Location Perhaps one group was at a disadvantage because of their location. The city may have been demolishing a building next to one of the schools in our study and there are constant distractions which interfere with our treatment. 2. Instrumentation Instrument Decay The testing instruments may not be scores similarly. Perhaps the person grading the posttest is fatigued and pays less attention to the last set of papers reviewed. It may be that those papers are from one of our groups and will received different scores than the earlier group's papers 3. Data Collector Characteristics The subjects of one group may react differently to the data collector than the other group. A male interviewing males and females about their attitudes toward a type of math instruction may not receive the same responses from females as a female interviewing females would. 4. Data Collector Bias The person collecting data my favors one group, or some characteristic some subject possess, over another. A principal who favors strict classroom management may rate students' attention under different teaching conditions with a bias toward one of the teaching conditions. Distort the data in such a way to make certain outcomes such as support for the hypothesis. Allow more time to complete the test for some classes. Ask leading questions.

Favoring one over the other (instructional methods) Report on absentism (tidak tanpa sebab tidak dikira tidak hadir dan tidak hadir dengan sebab dikira hadir). New definition of absentism. Menghasilkan kedatangan yang lebih baik daripada sebelumnya. What if the other school define differently? Then comparison is not valid. Suggest a possible answer during the interview. Awareness of which subjects are being experimented. How to overcome? Standardized all the procedures. Give training to data collectors Example of instrumentation threat: Grading an essay test for a few hours without stopping.

1. TestingThe act of taking a pretest or posttest may influence the results of the experiment. The pretest may have actually increased both groups' sensitivity and we find that our treatment groups didn't score any higher on a posttest given later than the control group did. If we hadn't given the pretest, we might have seen differences in the groups at the end of the study. Berikan Pretest Matematik (Standard Test), Pelajar Dapat Markah Rendah. Kemudian Beri Treatment. Uji Dapat Markah Tinggi. Bolehkan Kita Katakan Ianya Disebabkan Oleh Intervention Berkenaan? Mungkin Tidak Boleh!!! PRETEST---MAKE STUDENTS MORE ALERT 1. History Something may happen at the site during our study that influences the results. Perhaps a classmate dies in a car accident at the control site for a study teaching children bike safety. The control group may actually demonstrate more concern about bike safety than the treatment group. Apa yang berlaku semasa kajian boleh mempengaruhi hasil kajian berkenaan. Exposure to certain programs while participating in the study. Endurance test. While taking special diet, jog everyday. Democratic leadership practices improve commitment at the same time guru attend courses. 1. Maturation There may be natural changes in the subjects that can account for the changes found in a study. A critical thinking unit may appear more effective if it taught during a time when children are developing abstract reasoning. Pengalaman dan natural Kepantasan berlari ada hubung kaitnya dengan kematangan fizikal (perubahan fizikal). maturation. Misalnya latihan lumba lari untuk pelajar darjah enam. Jadi kita tidak boleh sewenangwenangnya katakan kalau berlatih boleh lari pantas. Mungkin yang tak belatih pun boleh lari Pantas. Keupayaan befikir pun ada kaitan dengan kematangan. Strength pun ada kaitan dengan kematangan. 1. Hawthorne Effect The subjects may respond differently just because they are being studied. The name comes from a classic study in which researchers were studying the effect of lighting on worker productivity. As the intensity of the factory lights increased, so did the worker productivity. One researcher suggested that they reverse the treatment and lower the lights. The productivity of the workers continued to increase. It appears that being observed by the researchers was increasing productivity, not the intensity of the lights. 2. John Henry Effect One group may view that it is in competition with the other group and may work harder than they would under normal circumstances. This generally is applied to the control group "taking on" the treatment group. The terms refers to the classic story of John Henry laying railroad track. 3. Resentful Demoralization of the Control Group The control group may become discouraged because it is not receiving the special attention that is given to the treatment group. They may perform lower than usual because of this. 4. Regression (Statistical Regression) -- A class that scores particularly low can be expected to score slightly higher just by chance. Likewise, a class that scores particularly high, will have a tendency to

score slightly lower by chance. The change in these scores may have nothing to do with the treatment. Apa sebenarnya regrasi ke arah min? Berlaku apabila skor rendah semasa pre-test akan bergerak ke arah min skor post-test. Begitu juga skor tinggi semasa pre-test akan bergerak ke arah min semasa post-test. Tidak berlaku perbezaan skor yang di sebebkan oleh rawatan yang diberikan When you are at the bottom you have no where to go. When you are at the top you have no where to go. Cook and Campbell (1979, pp52-53) explained regression toward the as a phenomenon that: 1) operates to increase obtained pretest-posttest gain scores among the low pretest scores since this group's pretest scores are more likely to have been depressed by error; 2) operates to decrease the obtained change in scores among persons with high pretest scores since their pretest scores are likely to have been inflated by error; and 3) does not affect obtained scores among scorers at the center of the pretest distribution since the group is likely to contain as many units whose pretest scores are inflated by error as units whose pretest scores are deflated by it.

Bila berlaku? Apabila subjek dipilih berasaskan skor extreme dalam pra-uji. Examples of this are students with the worst math ability, workers with the lowest morale or patients with the most severe symptoms. Regression toward the mean is expected in these cases where there is non-random sampling or assignment in experiments. Penyelesaian:

1. Implementation The treatment may not be implemented as intended. A study where teachers are asked to use student modeling techniques may not show positive results, not because modeling techniques don't work, but because the teacher didn't implement them or didn't implement them as they were designed. 2. Compensatory Equalization of Treatment Someone may feel sorry for the control group because they are not receiving much attention and give them special treatment. For example, a researcher could be studying the effect of laptop computers on students' attitudes toward math. The teacher feels sorry for the class that doesn't have computers and sponsors a popcorn party during math class. The control group begins to develop a more positive attitude about mathematics. 3. Experimental Treatment Diffusion Sometimes the control group actually implements the treatment. If two different techniques are being tested in two different third grades in the same building, the teachers may share what they are doing. Unconsciously, the control may use of the techniques she or he learned from the treatment teacher. Once the researchers are confident that the outcome (dependent variable) of the experiment they are designing is the result of their treatment (independent variable) [internal validity], they determine for which people or situations the results of their study apply [external validity]. External Validity: Are the results of the study generalizable to other populations and settings? External validity comes in two forms: population and ecological.

KESAHAN LUARAN: SEJAUHMANA HASIL KAJIAN BOLEH DI GENERALIZE KEPADA POPULASI DALAM SEMUA KEADAAN. ADAKAH HASIL KAJIAN BENAR-BENAR MENGGAMBARKAN POPULASI? Apabila kajian dijalankan hasilnya dijangka dapat di aplikasi kepada keseluruhan populasi kajian di tempat mana sekali pun populasi itu berada. Tetapi perlu diketahui bahawa hasil kajian kita tidak semestinya boleh digenralize kepada semua populasi dalam semua keadaan. Keupayaan kita generalize hasil kajian banyak bergantung kepada sampel dan pesampelan yang dilakukan.Threats to External Validity 1. Population

Population Validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from the specific sample that was studied to a larger group of subjects. It involves...

i.

ii.CUBA

...the extent to which one can generalize from the study sample to a defined population-If the sample is drawn from an accessible population, rather than the target population, generalizing the research results from the accessible population to the target population is risky. ...the extent to which personological variables interact with treatment effects-If the study is an experiment, it may be possible that different results might be found with students at different grades (a personological variable). MENGGUNAKAN HASIL KAJIAN UNTUK MENGATAKAN BAHAWA HASIL KAJIANNYA JUGA ADALAH BENAR UNTUK POPULASI/POPULASI MEMPUNYAI CIRI YANG SERUPA SEPERTI SAMPEL. POPULASI/POPULASI MEMPUNYAI CIRI YANG SERUPA SEPERTI SAMPEL. SO, HOW LARGE (SIZE) IS THE SAMPLE? HOW REPRESENTATIVE IS THE SAMPEL? WHAT IS MEANT BY REPRESENTATIVE? REP. PEMBOLEHUBAH YANG BERKAITAN YANG DIJANGKA BOLEH MENENTUKAN HASIL KAJIAN BAGAIMANA TREATMENT (KAEDAH MENGAJAR) DIBERIKAN? ADAKAH SECARA RAWAK? ADAKAH ORANG YANG MEMBERI TREATMENT JUGA DIPILIH SECARA RAWAK? Adakah ia juga represeantive? Dipilih secara rawak?

ADAKAH DATA DIPEROLEH DARIPADA SEMUA UNIT PESAMPELAN? APAKAH LANGKAH YANG DIAMBIL UNTUK MEMPASTIKAN RESPONDEN ADALAH SERUPA SEPERTI NON-RESPONDENT? BAGAIMANA JIKA PERSAMPELAN RAWAK TIDAK DAPAT DILAKSANAKAN? [Kita akan sentuh mengenai sampel dan persampelan sekejap lagi] TERANGKAN SEPENUHNYA SIAPAKAH SAMPEL KAJIAN (JANTINA, BANGSA, KEUPAYAAN, DAN SEBAGAINYA) REPLICATE KAJIAN BEKENAAN- ULANG KAJIAN MENGGUNAKAN SAMPEL YANG LAIN DALAM SITUASI YANG LAIN (SES, GEOGRAPHY,ABILITY DAN SEBAGAINYA) 1. Ecological Ecological Validity is the extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized from the set of environmental conditions created by the researcher to other environmental conditions (settings and conditions). There are 10 common threats to external validity. SEJAUHMANA HASIL KAJIAN ADALAH BENAR DALAM SETTING YANG LAIN. MAKSUDNYA JIKA DIULANG KAJIAN ITU DALAM SETTING YANG LAIN adakah HASIL YANG SERUPA AKAN DIPEROLEH. jelaskan dengan sejelas-jelasnya tentang SETTING KAJIAN berkenaan (SPACIOUS VS CROWDED CLASSROOM). HASIL KAJIAN YANG DIPEROLEH DARIPADA URBAN AREAS SUKAR UNTUK DIGENERALIZE KEPADA RURAL AREAS. MISALNYA KOMITMEN GURU TERHADAP PROFESION PERGURUAN ADALAH TINGGI TETAPI SUBJEK KAJIAN ADALAH DARIPADA BANDAR (KEMUDAHAN CUKUP MISALNYA) MAKA KITA TIDAK BOLEH MENGANDAIKAN IANYA JUGA SERUPA DENGAN GURU DILUAR BANDAR So How Close Is The Experimental Setting To The Natural Setting?

i.

ii.

iii.

Explicit description of the experimental treatment (not sufficiently described for others to replicate) If the researcher fails to adequately describe how he or she conducted a study, it is difficult to determine whether the results are applicable to other settings. Multiple-treatment interference (catalyst effect) If a researcher were to apply several treatments, it is difficult to determine how well each of the treatments would work individually. It might be that only the combination of the treatments is effective. Hawthorne effect (attention causes differences)Subjects perform differently because they know they are being studied. "...External validity of the experiment is jeopardized because the findings might not generalize to a situation in which researchers or others who were involved in the research are not present" (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996, p. 475)

iv.

Novelty and disruption effect (anything different makes a difference) A treatment may work because it is novel and the subjects respond to the uniqueness, rather than the actual treatment. The opposite may also occur, the treatment may not work because it is unique, but given time for the subjects to adjust to it, it might have worked. new instructional method (COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING) mungkin didapati lebih berjaya berbanding kaedah lama (PERBINCANGAN). Pada hal mungkin kedua-dua kaedah ini memberi kesan yang sama sahaja. Why it happens that way? New methodenthusiastic, old method left out . mungkin juga kaedah baru tidak berkesan, then why? Subjeck kajian belum cukup mahir dengan kaedah berkenaan sehinggalah ukuran ke atas pembolehubah bersandar di ambil (ujian diberikan). new instructional method (COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING) mungkin didapati lebih berjaya berbanding kaedah lama (PERBINCANGAN). Pada hal mungkin kedua-dua kaedah ini memberi kesan yang sama sahaja. Why it happens that way? New methodenthusiastic, old methodleft out . mungkin juga kaedah baru tidak berkesan, then why? Subjeck kajian belum cukup mahir dengan kaedah berkenaan sehinggalah ukuran ke atas pembolehubah bersandar di ambil (ujian diberikan). Experimenter effect (it only works with this experimenter) The treatment might have worked because of the person implementing it. Given a different person, the treatment might not work at all. Pretest sensitization (pretest sets the stage) A treatment might only work if a pretest is given. Because they have taken a pretest, the subjects may be more sensitive to the treatment. Had they not taken a pretest, the treatment would not have worked. Posttest sensitization (posttest helps treatment "fall into place") The posttest can become a learning experience. "For example, the posttest might cause certain ideas presented during the treatment to 'fall into place' " (p. 477). If the subj