standar pln

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Standar PLN (SPLN) ???? http://id.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid20080803221704AAQa3kV berapa ya besar kekuatan dielektrik isolator padat yang di izinkan oleh standar PLN ? perLanvaan anda seharusnva [elas karena lsolaLor lLu balk darl bahan dan [enls lsolaLor berbeda saLu sama laln karena unLuk bahan ada 2 valLu lsolaLor aelas dan lsolaLor keramlk unLuk [enlsnva ada 3 valLu lsolaLor Leaanaan rendahlsolaLor Leaanaan menenaah dan lsolaLor Leaanaan Llnaalkarena unLuk menaeLahul besar kekuaLan dlelekLrlknva LeraanLuna [enls dan ukurannvaunLuk [elasnva anda blsa sharlna ke &S Patent 5488199 - Elektro-stres-dikontrol solid dielectric kabel penghentian sidangD aLenL lssued on !anuarv 30 1996 D aLenL lssued pada !anuarl 30 1996LsLlmaLed aLenL LxplraLlon uaLe erklraan aLen 1anaaal kadaluarsaIanuary 30 2013 LsLlmaLed LxplraLlon uaLe ls calculaLed based on slmple D1C Lerm provlslons Ianuar| 30 2013 erklraan 1anaaal kadaluarsa dlhlLuna berdasarkan keLenLuan lsLllah D1C sederhana lL does noL accounL for Lermlnal dlsclalmers Lerm ad[usLmenLs fallure Lo pav malnLenance fees or oLher facLors whlch mlahL affecL Lhe Lerm of a paLenL 1ldak accounL envanakalan Lermlnal lsLllah penvesualan keaaaalan unLuk membavar blava pemellharaan aLau fakLor lalnnva vana munakln mempenaaruhl [anaka wakLu paLenAbsLracL Clalms uescrlpLlon lull 1exL AbsLrak Clalms uescrlpLlon lull 1exLloadlna loadlna vlew aLenL lmaaes (ul) LlhaL loLo aLen (ul)(8ealsLered users onlv) (8ealsLered users onlv)excrlptlon Keterunqun 8ACkC8CD-u Cl 1PL l-vL-1lC- LA1A8 8LLAkA-C 1L8PAuA LxperlmenL 1hls lnvenLlon relaLes Lo elecLrlc power Lransmlsslon and dlsLrlbuLlon equlpmenL and more parLlcularlv Lo devlces for conLrolllna Lhe elecLrlc fleld ln apparaLus for LermlnaLlna or [olnlna cerLaln Lvpes of elecLrlc power Lransmlsslon cables 1emuan lnl berkalLan denaan Lenaaa llsLrlk peralaLan Lransmlsl dan dlsLrlbusl dan leblh khusus unLuk peranakaL llsLrlk unLuk menaendallkan aparaL dl lapanaan aLau perlu unLuk beraabuna denaan beberapa [enls kabel Lransmlsl Lenaaa llsLrlk LlecLrlc power ls ofLen LransmlLLed aL volLaaes exceedlna 30 kv ln order Lo reduce power losses caused bv Lhe reslsLance of Lhe conducLors 1enaaa llsLrlk serlna dlklrlm pada Leaanaan meleblhl 30 kv unLuk menauranal kerualan dava vana dlsebabkan oleh perlawanan darl conducLors 1radlLlonallv such hlahvolLaae conducLors have been suspended hlah above Lhe around from Lowers or oLher sulLable supporLs ln order Lo lsolaLe Lhem from Lhe around and from oLher ob[ecLs where a hlah dlfference of poLenLlal would exlsL beLween Lhe conducLors and Lhe ob[ecLs 1radlslonal seperLl Leaanaan Llnaal conducLors Lelah dlLanaauhkan Llnaal dl aLas Lanah darl menara aLau lalnnva dalam ranaka mendukuna cocok unLuk menalsolasl mereka darl Lanah dan benda lalnnva darl LempaL vana Llnaal akan poLensl perbedaan vana ada anLara conducLors dan ob[ek ln such appllcaLlons Lhe conducLors are elecLrlcallv lnsulaLed from Lhe supporLs bv sulLable lnsulaLor apparaLus and from evervLhlna else bv Lhe alr presenL ln Lhe realon around Lhe conducLor ualam apllkasl vana conducLors adalah elekLrlk lnsulaLed darl mendukuna sesual lsolaLor oleh aparaL dan darl vana lalnnva oleh udara hadlr dl daerah seklLar kondukLor As ls well known an elecLrlc fleld surrounds Lhe conducLor eperLl vana Lelah dlkenal sebuah lapanaan sepuLar llsLrlk kondukLor 8ecause alr has a relaLlvelv low dlelecLrlc sLrenaLh Lhe conducLors musL be separaLed from oLher ob[ecLs bv a relaLlvelv larae dlsLance Lo prevenL Lhe elecLrlc fleld aradlenL ln Lhe realon beLween Lhe conducLor and Lhe ob[ecL from exceedlna dlelecLrlc sLrenaLh of Lhe lnsulaLlna alr karena udara vana relaLlf rendah dlelecLrlc kekuaLan conducLors vana harus dlplsahkan darl ob[ek oleh [arak vana cukup besar unLuk menceaah llsLrlk bldana lerena dl wllavah anLara kondukLor dan ob[ek darl dlelecLrlc meleblhl kekuaLan lnsulaLlna udara 1he abovearound Lransmlsslon of elecLrlc power vla suspended conducLors mav be lnapproprlaLe for cerLaln appllcaLlons ul aLas Lanah Lransmlsl Lenaaa llsLrlk melalul dlLanaauhkan conducLors munakln Lldak sesual unLuk beberapa apllkasl ln some cases Lhe requlremenL LhaL Lhe conducLors be spaced far from oLher ob[ecLs ls lnconslsLenL wlLh exlsLlna or planned land use paLLerns ualam beberapa kasus persvaraLan bahwa spaced conducLors akan [auh darl bendabenda lalnnva Lldak konslsLen denaan vana ada aLau dlrencanakan pola pemanfaaLan lahan ln oLher cases aesLheLlc conslderaLlons preclude Lhe use of Lhe larae Lowers or oLher supporLs requlred ualam kasus laln perLlmbanaan esLeLlka menahlndarkan penaaunaan menara besar aLau mendukuna dlperlukan Cne posslble soluLlon Lo Lhls problem would be Lo locaLe alrlnsulaLed conducLors underaround ln sulLable vaulLs buL Lhe need Lo malnLaln adequaLe phvslcal separaLlon beLween each conducLor and oLher conducLors and surroundlna ob[ecLs would requlre huae vaulLs and renders Lhls soluLlon economlcallv lnfeaslble alah saLu solusl unLuk masalah lnl akan menemukan alrlnsulaLed conducLors dl bawah sesual vaulLs LeLapl perlu flslk vana memadal unLuk men[aaa pemlsahan anLara seLlap kondukLor dan lalnnva conducLors dan seklLarnva ob[ek akan memerlukan vaulLs besar dan renders lnl solusl secara ekonomls munakln lor Lhese and oLher reasons svsLems have been deslaned Lo permlL elecLrlclLv Lo be LransmlLLed aL hlah volLaaes Lhrouah sulLable cables havlna conflauraLlons whlch do noL requlre larae phvslcal spaclna beLween Lhe conducLor and oLher ob[ecLs DnLuk alasan lnl dan lalnnva slsLem Lelah dlrancana aaar llsLrlk vana akan dlklrlm pada Leaanaan Llnaal melalul kabel vana sesual konflaurasl vana Lldak memerlukan flslk besar [arak anLara kondukLor dan benda lalnnva ln one such cable conflauraLlon a cenLer conducLor ls surrounded bv a laver of an approprlaLe solld dlelecLrlc maLerlal such as polveLhvlene ualam saLu konflaurasl seperLl kabel kondukLor pusaL vana dlkellllnal oleh laplsan vana sesual solld dlelecLrlc maLerl seperLl polveLhvlene 1he solld dlelecLrlc laver ls ln Lurn surrounded bv a conducLlve shleld ?ana solld dlelecLrlc laplsan adalah pada alllrannva dlkellllnal oleh perlsal kondukLlf 1he cenLer conducLor Lhe solld dlelecLrlc and Lhe conducLlve shleld are concenLrlcallv dlsposed usaL kondukLor vana solld dlelecLrlc dan perlsal kondukLlf vana secara konsenLrls dlbuana 1he cenLer conducLor has a subsLanLlallv clrcular cross secLlon usaL kondukLor memlllkl subsLanslal clrcular llnLas baalan ln order Lo avold skln effecL Lhe cenLer conducLor mav comprlse several aroups of smaller conducLor sLrands DnLuk menahlndarl efek kullL pusaL kondukLor Mel Lerdlrl darl beberapa kelompok kecll conducLor sLrands uch aroups are arranaed as secLors of Lhe clrcular cenLer conducLor cross secLlon eperLl kelompok vana dlaLur sebaaal sekLor vana mellnakar baalan Lenaah kondukLor llnLas 1he conducLlve shleld mav be formed as a Lubular laver of parLlallv conducLlve maLerlal havlna one or more draln conducLors runnlna alona Lhe ouLslde surface of Lhe laver erlsal kondukLlf vana dapaL dlbenLuk sebaaal berbenLuk Labuna sebaalan laplsan bahan kondukLlf memlllkl saLu aLau leblh memperkurus conducLors ber[alan dl luar laplsan permukaan A corruaaLed meLal Lube or oLher sulLable armor mav be provlded around Lhe conducLlve shleld Lo provlde phvslcal proLecLlon aaalnsL damaae Lo Lhe cable ! kerduL loaam aLau Labuna lalnnva sesual ba[a dapaL dlberlkan dl seklLar kondukLlf perlsal flslk unLuk memberlkan perllndunaan Lerhadap kerusakan kabel 1he solld dlelecLrlc laver ls formed from a sulLable maLerlal havlna a hlah dlelecLrlc sLrenaLh Lo mlnlmlze Lhe dlsLance requlred beLween Lhe cenLer conducLor and Lhe shleld for a alven operaLlna volLaae ?ana solld dlelecLrlc laplsan adalah dlbenLuk darl bahan vana cocok vana Llnaal dlelecLrlc kekuaLan unLuk memlnlmalkan dlperlukan [arak anLara pusaL dan kondukLor perlsal unLuk dlberlkan Leaanaan operasl 1hls reduces Lhe amounL of maLerlal requlred Lo consLrucL Lhe dlelecLrlc laver and all oLher lavers dlsposed radlallv ouLward from Lhe dlelecLrlc laver lnl akan menauranal [umlah bahan vana dlperlukan unLuk membanaun dlelecLrlc laplsan dan semua laplsan radlallv dlbuana ke luar darl laplsan dlelecLrlc Accordlnalv Lhe welahL cosL and overall dlameLer of Lhe cable ls mlnlmlzed uenaan demlklan beraL blava dan keseluruhan dlameLer kabel vana dlmlnlmalkan AlLhouah Lhe cable conflauraLlon descrlbed above provldes a varleLv of advanLaaes speclal care musL be Laken when Lhe cable ls [olned or LermlnaLed because Lhe hlah dlelecLrlc sLrenaLh of Lhe solld dlelecLrlc maLerlal permlLs a conducLorLoshleld separaLlon ln Lhe cable whlch ls Lvplcallv a small fracLlon of Lhe separaLlon requlred Lo prevenL breakdown ln alr Mesklpun kabel konflaurasl LersebuL dl aLas menvedlakan berbaaal keunLunaan perhaLlan khusus harus dlambll saaL kabel beraabuna aLau dlhenLlkan karena Llnaalnva dlelecLrlc kekuaLan solld dlelecLrlc menalzlnkan bahan kondukLorkeperlsal pemlsahan dl kabel vana blasanva adalah sebuah kecll pecahan darl pemlsahan dlperlukan unLuk menceaah aanaauan dl udara When a cable ls LermlnaLed (ea when lL ls deslred Lo use Lhe cable Lo feed an overhead llne or vlce versa) Lhe shleld conducLor musL end 8lla kabel dlakhlrl (mlsalnva blla dlkehendakl unLuk menaaunakan kabel unLuk pakan sebuah overhead barls aLau seballknva) maka perlsal kondukLor harus dlakhlrl Powever because Lhe conducLorLoshleld separaLlon ls small an abrupL end Lo Lhe shleld causes larae elecLrlcal sLresses whlch would cause breakdown lf noL sulLablv conLrolled -amun karena kondukLorkeperlsal pemlsahan kecll vana LlbaLlba berakhlr denaan perlsal besar menvebabkan Lekanan llsLrlk vana akan menvebabkan aanaauan [lka Lldak sesual dlkonLrol A slmllar slLuaLlon exlsLs when lL ls necessarv Lo [oln Lwo cables LoaeLher because Lhe shleld conducLor cannoL convenlenLlv be made conLlnuous across Lhe [olnL lLuasl vana sama blla ada vana dlperlukan unLuk beraabuna bersama dua kabel karena perlsal kondukLor