p11 geologi struktur analisis geofisika struktur geologi

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  • Geologi Struktur(Analisis Geofisika Struktur Geologi)

    Oleh :Irvani

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Referensi : Van Der Pluijm, B. A. and Marshak, S. 2004. Earth Structure. 2nd Edition. W. W.

    Norton & Company, Inc., USA. Rowland, S.M., Duebendorfer, E.M. and Schiefelbein, I.M. 2007. Structural Analysis

    and Synthesis : A Laboratory Course in Structural Geology. 3th Edition. Blacwell Publishing Ltd. Voctoria, Australia.

    Bates, R.L. and Jackson, J.A., 1987. Glossary Geology. 3th Edition. American Geological Institute Elexandria, Virginia.

    Davis, G.H. 1984. Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

    Ragan, D.M. 2009. Structural Geology : An Introduction to Geometrical Techniques. 4th Edition. Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Twiss R.J. And Moores, E.M. 2007. Structural Geology. 2nd Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, USA.

    Ramsey J. and Huber, M. 1983. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology : Strain Analysis. Vol. 1. Academic Press, Inc., London.

    Ramsey J. and Huber, M. 1987. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology : Fold and Fractures. Vol. 2. Academic Press, Inc., London.

    Ramsey J. and Huber, M. 2000. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology : Applications of Continuum Mechanics in Structural Geology. Vol. 3. Elsevier Academic Press, Inc., California.

    Cox, A. and Hart, R.B. 1986. Plate Tectonics : How It Works. Blacwell Scienific Publications, Inc., California.

    Trouw, R.A.J. and Passchier, C.W. 1996. Microtectonics. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany.

    DLL.

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Pokok Bahasan :I Pendahuluan (P.1)

    II Tektonika & Orogenesa (P.2-3)a. Tektonik lempengb. Orogenesa

    III Gaya, Tegangan, Strain & Deformasi (P.4-5)

    a. Gaya & Teganganb. Strain & Deformasi

    IV Struktur Geologi (P.6-9)a. Unsur strukturb. Lipatan c. Kekar d. Sesar/Patahan

    V Identifikasi Struk. Geologi (P.10-11)a. Pengukuran dan analisis

    struktur geologib. Analisis geofisika struktur

    geologi

    VI Aplikasi Struk. Geologi (P.12-13)a. Mineralisasi b. Migasc. Kebencanaan geologi

    VII Geologi Struk. Indonesia (P.14)a. Umumb. Sumatra&Jawa c. Bangka Belitung

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Geophysical Imaging of the Continental LithosphereSismic

    Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • P-waves have a particle motion parallel with the propagation direction of the wavefront and it is therefore a compressional wave. The S-wave has a motion that is perpendicular to the direction of propagation, it is a transverse waveform. The Love and Raleigh waves have rather complex particle motions. The latter two are surface-related movements that do not show a great penetration depth and a rapid vertical decrease in amplitude away from the interface (modified after Kearey and Brooks 1991).

    Veeken (2007)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Reflection and refraction

    Snells law,

    Milsom (2003)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Diagram illustrating different P-wave raypath in seismic acquisition set-up for a horizontal interface. Various rays are shown in the depth model at the top and their recording in the time domain TX-graph at the bottom. The reflected waveform is represented by a hyperbolic curve. Veeken (2007)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Ranges of P-wave velocities and rippabilities in common rocks. The vertical axis, for each rock type, is intended to show approximately the relative numbers of samples that would show a given velocity.

    Milsom (2003)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Diagram showing how echo sounding, seismic reflection, andsidescan sonar are used to study the sea floor. Modified from U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 039-02

    Carlson et al. (2009)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Unconformities

    Veeken (2007)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Stratigraphic subdivision in two wells from the sedimentary Mandawa Basin (Tanzania) based on biostratigraphic, seismic and lithostratigraphic information. The 2D seismic line below illustrates the structural style of the basin fill. The transfer zone penetrated in the Mbuo-1 well contains sands with hydrocarbon shows directly overlying the basement pop-up block.

    Veeken (2007)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Seismic section illustrating the structuration of the Macuspana Basin (onshore Mexico). The two high areas are prospective areas for hydrocarbon exploration.The structure on the right has been tested and contains HCs in the Miocene-Pliocene sequence. The structure on the left is untested, but has amplitude anomalies associated with it. The kitchen is situated in the deeper graben below, in which Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks are mature (courtesy Pemex).Veeken (2007)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Complex tectonic history resulted in tectonic inversion of the sediments across the Fahud fault zone in northern Oman.The velocity distribution is anomalous due to the Tertiary uplift on the right hand side, disturbing the natural increase in velocity due to ongoing burial and compaction is no longer valid. This should be taken into account when doing TD conversion. Local velocity trends are calibrated by wells and should be respected by the conversion procedure (Veeken et al. 2005).

    Veeken (2007)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Veeken (2007)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Seismic reflection profile across the southern Rocky Mountain Trench near the Canada-U.S. border. Note that the prominent layering, which is drilled on the west and is known to be dominantly Proterozoic sills, is offset along a west-dipping listric normal fault that has about 10 km of dip-slip displacement. Data were recorded by Duncan Energy of Denver, Colorado.

    Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Seismic profile from the Wind River Mountains in Wyoming (USA). The Wind River fault juxtaposes crystalline rocks of the Wind River Mountains with sedimentary rocks of the Green River Basin along a moderately east-dipping fault, and this provides a simple explanation for the prominent reflection. Below a travel time of about 3.54.0 s,however, the fault zone places crystalline rocks onto crystalline rocks and the reflections must be caused by other mechanisms. Datarecorded by COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) in 1977. Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Seismic profile from the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen in northern Saskatchewan (Canada) illustrating prominent subhorizontalreflections that have been interpreted as intrusive rocks. Note that the reflector appears to cross cut several dipping reflections. Note also the prominent Moho on these data.

    Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Some reflection characteristics of the crustmantle transition. (a) Profile from south-central portion of the Canadian Cordillera illustrating a relatively simple, single reflection from near the transition. On the right side of the figure, the numbers 6.0 and 7.0 represent the positions of the Moho, as identified from adjacent seismic refraction data, for average velocities of 6.0 and 7.0 km/s, respectively. RM represents the preferred position of the Moho using the crustal velocity structure determined from the refraction profile. Note that the Moho appears to be located at the base of crustal reflectivity, and that the underlying mantle has fewer reflections (e.g., MR). Data were recorded by LITHOPROBE in 1988.

    372

    Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Reflection characteristics of the crustmantle transition. Portion of a seismic profile that illustrates listric structures into the crustmantle transition. Data were recorded by LITHOPROBE in 1996. This segment is from beneath the Great Bear arc region on the regional profile.

    Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • (upper) Regional seismic profile from ancient (>2.6 Ga) rocks of the SlaveProvince on the east, across the Proterozoic (2.11.85 Ga) Wopmay Orogen in the center, and then the younger Proterozoic ( 1.740.55 Ga) Fort Simpson Basin on the west. The data are plotted to 32.0 s travel time, or about 120 km depth. Note the prominent crustal reflectivity, the crustmantle transition, and sparse, but important reflections from within the upper mantle (M1 and M2). A general interpretation is shown (lower) to illustrate that the accretion of the Proterozoic rocks to the Slave Province probably resulted from subduction, the remnants of which are probably the dipping mantle reflections. Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

    Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan

  • Enlargement of a segment of the regional profile from the Slave Province. Here, the Moho appears to have a series of dipping surfaces (arrows) that are cross cut by horizontal reflections (RM). One possible interpretation is that these horizontal reflectionsrepresent intrusives. Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

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