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<ul><li><p>ModellingofSteamTurbineanditsGoverningSystem</p><p>DrMSRMurty</p></li><li><p>GENERATORCONTROLS</p></li><li><p>Grid</p><p>Reference</p><p>ST : steam turbineG : generator</p><p>SV : stop valve</p><p>CV</p><p>SVSteam</p><p>Speed</p><p>Power</p><p>GOVERNINGSYSTEM G</p><p>ST</p><p>CV contr. valve valve</p><p>Fig. 1 STEAM TURBINE GOVERNING SCHEME</p></li><li><p>SPEED</p><p>+</p><p>Valve</p><p>Position</p><p>SET</p><p>POINT -</p><p>Mechanical</p><p>Power</p><p>+GOVERNOR TURBINE ROTOR</p><p>INERTIA</p><p>Fig2GOVERNINGSYSTEMFUNCTIONALBLOCKDIAGRAM</p></li><li><p>GoverningControlsystem</p><p> SpeedSensing :Mechanical(Flyballtype),Hydraulic(Pump),Electric(toothedWheelpickup)</p><p> MWTransducerforPower Processing :Hydromechanical,Electrohydraulic,DigitalElectrohydraulic</p><p> Amplification:Hydraulicamplifiersinvariousstages</p><p> Actuation:HydraulicServomotor</p></li><li><p>TG Unit Operating Modes:Isolated : S Open : Speed changes when gov valve is adjustedInterconnected : S Closed or grid connected: Speed is unaffected</p></li><li><p>TGUnitOnGrid:LoadControl</p><p> TGSpeed/Frequencydoesnoteffectgridfrequency</p><p> Aftersynchronization,changeinvalveopeningcannotchangeTGunitspeedbutchangesonlyPowerOutput</p><p>InfiniteInertiaBusGRID</p></li><li><p>ControlRequirements Startup: To control machine speed forproper synchronization</p><p> Normal Operation: To Control MW and Toparticipate in the control of system frequency</p><p> Emergency: Load Rejection/Circuit BreakerOpeningTo restore speed deviation quickly withoutmuch transient overspeed</p></li><li><p>Governingsystem:Technology</p><p> MechanicalHydraulicControl(MHC) Electro HydraulicControl(EHC)Sensing,Processing,primaryamplificationusingelectroniccircuitry</p><p>Transistorversion(BHEL/KWUSiemensIskamaticmodules)</p><p> DigitalElectro HydraulicControl(DEHC)Microprocessorbased</p></li><li><p>Processing</p><p> Decideshowvalvepositionshouldbechangedwhenspeedchanges</p><p> Objective:Minimumupsetsinthesystem SpeedController,LoadController:structureandtuningdecidetransientperformance</p><p> Droopcharacteristic(4%or5%):importantgoverningparameter</p></li><li><p>ElectronicControllerFeatures</p><p> SeparationofSpeedControlandLoad(Power)Controlfunctionswithseparateprocessingphilosophy</p><p> SpeedController:Proportional Derivativeaction:AnticipatoryControl</p><p> LoadController:Proportional Integralaction InteractionwithATRS andTSE</p></li><li><p>SimpleSpeedgoverningsystem</p><p>/Gate</p><p>Command</p><p>GateOil</p><p>ServomotorSENSING</p><p>PROCESSING AMPLIFICATIONANDACTUATION</p><p>SETPOINT</p></li><li><p>Steam </p><p> Actuation of Valve (Servomotor)</p><p> Hydraulic Amplification </p><p>Speed &amp; MW</p><p> PrimaryAmplification</p><p> Sensing </p><p> Processing</p><p>Electro-hydraulicConverter</p><p>ControlValve</p><p>EH</p><p>HYDRAULICPART</p><p>ST</p><p>G</p><p>ELECTRONICPART</p><p>Fig 3 ELECTRO HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR SCHEME</p></li><li><p>VALVEOPENINGCOMMAND</p><p>Load</p><p>Speed</p><p>+</p><p>+LoadRef.</p><p>SpeedRef.</p><p>SPEEDCONTROLLER</p><p>(PDP)</p><p>LOADCONTROLLER</p><p>( P I )</p><p>SELECTIONLOGIC</p><p>(MIN MAX)</p><p>Fig 4 SPEED CONTROLLER AND LOAD CONTROLLER IN EHG</p></li><li><p>DroopCharacteristic</p><p>SpeedChange</p><p>TurbinePowerChange</p><p>=(Load)</p><p>ValveOpeningChange</p><p>SteamFlowChange</p><p>Load%</p><p>SpeedOrFrequency</p><p>104%</p><p>100%</p><p>0 50 100</p><p>52Hz</p><p>50Hz</p></li><li><p>Frequency(Hz)</p><p>50</p><p>524% Drop</p><p>Load0% 50% 100%</p><p>Fig 6 REGULATION OR DROOP CHARACTERSTIC</p></li><li><p>Time (Sec)</p><p>Speed(%)</p><p>Unstable </p><p>Oscillatory (Hunting)</p><p>Fig 7 TYPICAL SPEED HUNTING TRANSIENT</p></li><li><p>ValveOpening</p><p>Dead band or insensitive zone</p><p>Speed / frequency</p><p>Fig. 8 DEAD BAND CHARACTERISTIC</p></li><li><p>STEAMTURBINESCHEMEWITHHPANDIPCONTROLS</p><p>Reheater</p><p>IPCV</p><p>HPCVSteam </p><p>Condenser</p><p>LPTHP</p><p>T</p><p>IPT G</p><p>R H</p></li><li><p>TransferFunctionofSteamVolume</p><p>Steam Vessel</p><p>Steam inflow Steam </p><p>outflow</p><p>Steam pressure</p><p>1----------(1 + TV. s)</p><p>Wi W o</p></li><li><p>Functionalblockdiagramofturbinegoverningsystem</p></li><li><p>TURBINECONTROLLER</p><p>29Feed forward provision</p><p>KSVSSpeed Controller: Proportional Derivative</p><p>Load Controller : Proportional Integral </p><p>Load </p><p>Load Ref</p><p>SpeedRef SPEED</p><p>CONTROLLER</p><p>LOADCONTROLLER</p><p>SELECTIONLOGIC</p><p>EH</p><p>To Hyd.Amplifier</p><p>speed</p><p>Ks(1+VsTs.S)(1 + Ts . S)droop</p><p>KPL + 1TILS</p><p>KS</p></li><li><p>PI</p><p>t</p><p>Output(Y)</p><p>t</p><p>PDP</p><p>K</p><p>Output(Y)</p><p>SpeedController LoadController</p></li><li><p>Parametersinfluencingtheperformance</p><p> RotorInertia Droop Speed/LoadControllerparameters Deadband Valvecharacteristics IPTurbinecontrol Pressurecontrolmodes</p></li><li><p>GovernorRegulationorDroop</p><p> 4%Droop:4%SpeedChangewillcause100%changeinPowerOutput(Gain:25)</p><p> Droopisnecessaryfori)Sharingofloadii)Ensuringclosedloopstability:Lowervalueofdroopincreasesgainandmakesthesystemoscillatory</p></li><li><p>GoverningSystemResponse</p><p> Responsetimesareimportant:delayincorrectioncancausetransientspeedrisehighandtriptheturbine</p><p> Stabilityofgoverningsystemdependsonprocessingalgorithm(PI,PID,PDPetc.,)andonsystemparameters&amp;timeconstants</p></li><li><p>Performancespecifications:LoadRejection</p><p> Rejectiontozeroloadfromanyload Speedshallbereturnedtothesetpointasmaybemodifiedbyspeeddrooporregulation</p><p> Nomorethanoneunderspeeddeviationexceeding5%</p><p> Nomorethanoneoverspeeddeviationexceeding5%afterinitialoverspeeddeviation</p></li><li><p>Performancespecifications:Sustainedconditions</p><p> Steadystategoverningspeedband:Notmorethan0.3%(atnoloadoranyload).Alsocalledspeedstabilityindex.</p><p> Steadystategoverningloadband:Notmorethan0.4%(at5%speeddroop)Alsocalledpowerstabilityindex.</p></li><li><p>StabilityIndex:Degreeofstability</p><p> Judgedbythemagnitudeofsustainedoscillationsofspeedandpoweroutputfromtheturbinethatareproducedbythegovernorsystem</p><p> Stabilityindexillustratestheregulatingperformanceforthegovernorandturbine</p><p> GovernorDeadbandillustratestheperformanceforthegovernoralone</p></li><li><p>LoadRejection</p><p> GoverningSystemPerformancecanbejudgedbyfullloadrejectionbehavior:TransientSpeedRise(TSR),hunting</p><p> EmergencyGovernorshouldnotgetactivated Influencingparameters:RotorAccelerationTime(Ta),Droop,SpeedControllergains,Incrementaldroop</p></li><li><p>LOADREJECTIONRESPONSE</p><p>Load</p><p>100%</p><p>Time(sec)</p><p>t</p><p>100%0%</p><p>Speed(%)</p><p>TSR(6 10%)</p><p>5%Droop</p></li><li><p>3FW</p><p>SH1</p><p>QDRUM</p><p>WW</p><p>BOILER</p><p>SH2</p><p>G</p><p>Q</p><p>150ata540C</p><p>HTP</p><p>IPT</p><p>COND</p><p>RH</p><p>.</p><p>.</p><p>.</p><p>FlueGas</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Air</p><p>DESH</p><p>InteractionwithBoilerControls</p><p>GOVERNOR</p><p>MasterPressureControl</p><p>DrumLevelcontrol</p><p>TemperatureControl</p><p>Spray</p></li><li><p>ExtractionSteamPressure</p><p>STEAM</p><p>CONDENSER</p><p>LPCVLOAD</p><p>SPEED</p><p>HPT</p><p>LPT</p><p>G</p><p>GOV,SYSTEM</p><p>HPCV</p><p>TO PROCESS</p><p>EXTRACTION TURBINE CONTROL SCHEME</p></li><li><p>StreamGenerators</p><p>LP</p><p>Process</p><p>VHP HP MPPRDS</p><p>Process ProcessProcess</p><p>HRSGs</p><p>UBs</p><p>G</p><p>TypicalSteamandPowerSystem</p><p>Headers</p><p>107/ 510 45/ 400 20/ 340 5.5/ 220</p><p>Kg/Cm2 o C</p><p>C</p><p>G</p><p>GAS TURBINE</p><p>GSteam Turbine </p></li><li><p>SteamandPowersystemDynamics</p><p>Steam System</p><p>Power System</p><p>Fuel System</p><p>Upsets in one system can influence the other</p></li><li><p>ModellingandSimulation</p></li><li><p>Instantaneousresponse</p><p> AssumesuddenLoadReductionandinstantaneouschangeingeneration</p><p>1.0</p><p>.8</p><p>Powerp.u Load,PL</p><p>Time(Sec.)</p><p>GenerationPg</p><p>Frequency</p><p>Time(Sec.)</p><p>50Hz</p></li><li><p>RotorInertia</p><p> Atsteadystate:TurbineTorque(Pm)=LoadTorque((Pel)</p><p> Duringtransient:Speed=((Pm Pel)/Ta)dt</p><p> Ta=Accelerationtimeorinertiaconstant(functionofmomentofinertia)</p><p>Typicalvalues:Ta=9 12sec</p></li><li><p>Acceleration/Deceleration</p><p>me</p><p>Pg</p><p>Deviationareaisindicativeofacceleration/deceleration</p><p>PL</p></li><li><p>PL me</p><p>Pg</p><p>DelayduetothecumulativeeffectsofGovernor,hydraulicpassages,turbine</p><p>n or f</p><p> t</p><p>Frequency or SpeedvariationDue to the above : </p><p>GovernorResponse</p><p>SettlingSpeedhigher</p></li><li><p>Xp </p><p>Hydraulicrelaystimeconstant</p><p>Inflow(Qi) Xp</p><p>Qi=volumetric</p><p>displacementofoil</p><p>=Ap.dxsm/dtKpXp=Apsxsm</p><p>Xsm</p><p>Xsm1</p><p>Tsm.S Xp</p><p>bLevergain</p></li><li><p>HPTURBINETIMECONSTSANT</p><p>T4=Steammassinsideturbine</p><p>MassflowthroughHPturbineKg/Sec207.4VolumexDensity=0.844(m3)(1/0.02337) =36.114</p><p>T4=36.114/207.4=0.17Sec.</p><p>VHPincludes: Volumeininletportionupto1st stage.</p><p> allpipingconnections blading</p><p>IPTurbine:0.27Sec</p><p>LPTurbine:0.47Sec</p><p>TReheaterr :10to20Sec.</p></li><li><p>NALCO</p></li><li><p>NALCO</p></li><li><p>GNFC Bharuch</p></li><li><p>GNFC Bharuch</p></li><li><p>GNFC Bharuch</p></li><li><p>GNFC Bharuch</p></li></ul>