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  • 7/29/2019 Toksikologi Dasar

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    BASIC TOXICOLOGY

    Fathiyah Safithri

    FK-UMM

    2010

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    DEFINISIIlmu tentang racunIlmu yang mempelajari asal, mekanisme dan efek

    buruk agen kimia atau fisik dan radiasi padaorganisme hidup atau sistem biologis lain.

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    KLASIFIKASI Sistem klasifikasi sangat bervariasi

    Bds tujuan / bidang aplikasi (forensik, klinik,lingkungan, okkupasional, dll)

    Bds sistem organ yg dipengaruhi (kardiovaskular,renal, neuro. Dll)

    Bds metode riset yg digunakan utk mempelajaritoksisitas (molekular, biokemis, behavioral, dll)

    Bds kemampuan menimbulkan toksisitas (ringansedang, berat, ekstrim, super)

    Bdr struktur kimia (aromatik amine, halogenatedhydrocarbon, dll)

    dll

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    Forensic toxicology kombinasi kimiaanalitik dan toksikologi dasar yang memperhatikanaspek medikolegal

    Clinical toxicology fokus pada penyakityang disebabkan atau secara unik berhubungandengan substansi toksik

    RUANG LINGKUP KEDOKTERAN

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    berhub dg bhn kimia disekitar tempat kerja

    terutama identifikasi agent

    kondisi tempat kerja aman, absorbsi bahan kimiaberlebih dapat dicegah

    guideline konsentrasi bahan kimia di udara yangpasti aman (establish) ada daftar bahan kimiayg direkomendasikan memenuhi threshold limit

    values (TLVs). Guideline selalu di evaluasi newinformation

    Occupational Toxicology

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    Toksikologi Lingkungan

    berhubungan dg dampak kimia sbg polutan di lingkunganorganisme hidup udara, tanah, air, dll

    target utama manusia, spesies lain target biologikpotensial

    Polusi udara produk industri

    pengembangan teknologi

    peningkatan urbanisasi

    Polusi tanah dan air pestisida

    Pengolahan makanan residu bahan kimia padaproduk makanan

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    Ecotoxicology toksikologi ekosistem

    Bioaccumulation = the accumulation of a contaminant ortoxin in or on an organism

    from all sources (e.g., food, water, air).

    Biomagnification = the increase in concentration of

    toxin as it passes through successive levels of the food web

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    Food Web =A summary of the feedingrelationships within an ecological community.

    ORGANIC DEBRIS

    Osprey

    Water Plants

    Sucker

    Bay

    Shrimp

    Trout

    Plankton

    Silverside

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    TERMINOLOGI Toksisitas : derajat keracunana atau injury yg

    ditimbulkan oleh suatu bahan kimia. Toksisitastergantung pd dosis, lama paparan dan rute / jln

    masuk, struktur dan bentuk bahan kimin tsb, dan faktorindividual

    Agen toksik : bahan kimia yg dpt merusak /membunuh manusia, hewan atau tumbuhan, yangberasal dari produk alam, mis tumbuhan, hewan,

    bakteri, jamur, logam berat (arsen), dll Toksikan : .berasal dari aktivitas manusia. Mis logam

    berat (arsen)

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    LD50 (mg/kg) Examples

    Supertoxic < 0.01 dioxin, botulism,mushrooms

    Extreme. Toxic 15g water, table sugar

    Klasifikasi berdasarkan Potensi dlm

    menimbulkan Toksisitas

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    Testing Toxicity

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    Parameter utk menentukan dosis toksik

    hewan coba

    Dosis toksik tiap spesies berbeda

    Luas permukaan tubuh (Surface area) lebih

    akurat Berat badan

    dosis toksik pd tikus stl dihitung bdsperbandingan BB tikus-manusia = hanya 1/10

    dari dosis toksik yg diterima manusia

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    UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT : LD50, LC50 SUBKRONIS

    KRONIS KHUSUS : teratogenisitas, karsinogenisitas,

    mutagenitas

    Uji toksisitas yg digunakan tgt tujuan & lamapemakaian bhn kimia yg akan diuji Obat anti cacing : uji toksisitas akut Obat anti hipertensi, anti DM : uji toksisitas kronis,

    karsinogenisitas, teratogenisitas

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    UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT ACUTE EXPOSURE

    = Dosis bahan kimia tunggal atau dlm

    waktu pendek(umumnya < 1 hari ) Hewan coba : tikus, mencit jantan atau betina

    Pemeriksaan penyebab kematian hewan cobadalam kurun waktu 14 hari

    Diamati : BB, prilaku, konsumsi makanan, dll Informasi: LD50 / LC50, target organ,

    reversibility, dose-response

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    Dose-Response Curve

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    The Median Lethal Dose (LD50)

    Dosis bahan kimia yg menimbulkan kematian pd 50%populasi hewan coba. Dosis diberikan dlm bbrp metode

    Satuan :

    mg/kg

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    The Median Lethal Concentration (LC50)

    Konsentrasi bahan kimia dlm lingkungan

    (umumnya udara / air) yg menyebabkankematian pd 50% populasi hewan coba ygdipapar dlm periode waktu tertentu.

    Satuan : mg/L atau ppm

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