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    MENGAPA PENTING KEPEMIMPINAN(MENJADI ORANG YANG TIDAK BIASA)

    BERBAHAGIALAH ORANG YANGMEMILIKI PEMIMPIN YANG CERDAS

    MURAH SENYUM; SUKA MENDENGAR;

    PEDULI; EMPATI; BAHASA SANTUN;

    BERSAHABAT; TAMPIL RAPI; POSITIFSENANG BELAJAR; PRESTASI SERTA SEHAT DAN TRAMPIL

    Prof. Jalius Jama

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    LANDASAN KEPEMIMPINAN(Human Resources Dev. PROCESS)

    COMPETENT

    CONFIDENT

    CONSISTENT

    COMMITMENT

    LEADERSHIP

    CREDIBILITY

    Skilled in

    SpiritualEthicsIntellectualEmotionalSocial

    Psychomotoric

    Accomplished(Learning to be)

    Prof. Jalius Jama

    P

    O

    T

    E

    N

    S

    I

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    Prof. Jalius Jama

    GENERALLY PASSIVE

    C

    H

    I

    L

    D

    A

    D

    U

    L

    T

    DEPENDENT OF OTHERS

    LIMITED REPERTOIRE OF WAYS

    ATTENTION NOT LONG AND DEEP

    TIME PERSPECTIVE IS VERY SHORT

    CONSIDERED TO BE SUBORDINATE

    NO HABITUAL SET OF ATTITUDE

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    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD LEADER

    Good leaders listen (mendengar)

    Effective leaders are fair(jujur dan adil)

    Effective leaders are goal oriented (Berorientasi

    pada TUJUAN) Effective leaders direct actions of others

    (Mengarahkan teman)

    Good leaders know how to evaluate people and

    programs (Mengevaluasi) Leaders are responsible for their own and group

    (Bertanggungjawab)

    Effective leaders are skilled (Ketrampilan hidup)

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    POTENSI MANUSIA

    Spiritual: Pengakuan, kedekatan dengan Tuhan, diawasi, dilin- dungi,keberanian, kejujuran, keikhlasan. Kerja bukanlah sekadar

    mencari nafkah, tetapi pengabdian kepada sesama danibadah kepada tuhan

    Morality: Konsistensi terhadap nilai-nilai kebenaran, keadilan, dankebaikan. Tidak merugikan, mencelakakan orang lain,

    jangan berdusta, tepati janji, jangan melanggar hukum,

    bantulah mereka yang butuh, bersikaplah adil, usahakankebaikan bagi masyarakat. Intellectual: Kompetensi, pola pikir logika, bahasa, penget.,

    pengembangan diri dan kecerdasan Emotional : Kepribadian, interpersonal, konsistensi, leadership,

    simpati dan empati dan perilaku

    Social skill: Respek, peduli sesama, memberi makna pd kelompok sosial Psychomotoric: Ketrampilan kinestetis, sehat fisik, gerakan,

    manual, teknologi, informasi dan komputer

    Competent

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    LANDASAN FILOSOFIS:Manusia Belajar Ilmu - Menjadi

    Pendidikan memanusiakan manusia; dari manusia yg

    belum dewasa menjadi manusia yang mandiri Bahwa manusia itu mempunyai AKAL yang harus diisi, maka

    ia diperintahkan utk BELAJAR sepanjang hayat Sesungguhnya, bila kamu menginginkan kebahagiaan di dunia,

    carilah ILMU, dan bila kamu menginginkan kebahagiaan diakhirat, carilah ILMU, dan bila kamu menginginkan keduanya,

    carilah ILMU Orang yang berilmu (dan mengamalkan), akan ditinggikan

    derajatnya.

    BELAJAR MENJADI WAJIB HUKUMNYA dan IBADAH

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    LIFE SKILLS: KECAKAPAN HIDUP

    BAHASA LISAN DAN TULIS COMMUNICATION PROBLEM SOLVING

    CRITICAL THINKNG DECISION MAKING CREATIVE THINKING INTERPERSONAL SKILL

    BERNEGOSIASI MENGEMBANGKAN KESADARAN DIRI EMPHATY MENGONTROL EMOSI

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    APAKAH KOMUNIKASI???

    KOMUNIKASI ADALAH:

    BERBAGI = SALING = KESEPAKATAN

    INFORMASI PERASAAN -PENGALAMAN - PENGERTIAN-

    TANGGUNGJAWABKEBERSAMAAN-

    SUKSES- GAGAL

    KEMAMPUAN MENDENGAR

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    (Prinsip 4) KERJA ADALAH AKTUALISASI DIRI

    (Anda adalah seperti yang mampu anda wujudkan) Kerja keras sesungguhnya adalah aktualisasi diri, setiap ilmu baru yang

    anda peroleh, merupakan alat untuk menggali (to explore) potensi (ilmu)

    selanjutnya yang lebih tinggi. Tidak ada yang berat bila anda menemukan maknanya. Something has

    no meaning, unless YOU put meaning on it. Semuanya berubah, kecuali perubahan itu sendiri. Orang sering

    mengatakan sulit untuk merubah sikapnya. Padahal kelebihan manusiadari makhluk lainnya adalah manusia mampu berubah.

    Kerjakanlah walau berat, anda akan menjadi lebih kuat. Bila andaberhasil, maka anda pasti siap melakukan sesuatu yang lebih berat.

    Dalam kehidupan selalu ada halangan & kesulitan, kerjakan. Biasakan suka mengerjakan tugas yang setingkat lebih sulit Bersikap positif terhadap tugas yang sulit, dan akan sehat

    Aktualisasi diri justru terwujud pada pekerjaan yang sulit Banyak calon doktor yg tdk yakin bahwa dia juga bisa; kalau hanyabegitu, saya juga bisa. (=Berlatih intellectual skill)

    Potensi yg terbangkitkan akan menjadi modal baru untuk lebih kompeten;mampu pada tugas yang lebih sulit

    Orang sering lupa memanfaatkan potensi (sdm/sda) sekitar

    IKHLAS MERUPAKAN KUNCI BERAT RINGANNYA TUGAS

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    CURRICULUM VITAE

    1. Nama: Prof. Dr. Jalius Jama, M. Ed.

    2. Lahir: Bukittinggi, 5 Februari 19423. Pendidikan: SR (SD); SMP dan SMA Negeri 1 Bukittinggi

    Sarjana Pendidikan Teknik Mesin: UGM dan IKIP Yogya

    Diploma:Technical Teacher,ManchesterUniversity-England

    Master of Education (M.Ed) Texas, USA

    Doctor of Philosophy, Ohio State University, USA

    Pekerjaan: Dosen Pascasarjana UNP

    Pengaaman Organisasi: Ketua OSIS SMAN 1 Bukittinggi

    Presiden PERMIAS(Perhimpunan Mhs Indonesia di AS1983/87)

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    MENGAPA PERLU KOMUNIKASI ???

    KOMUNIKASI MERUPAKAN SUMBER DARI

    BERBAGAI PENYAKIT TETAPI SEBALIKNYA,

    MENJADI OBAT BERBAGAI MACAM PENYAKIT

    MERUPAKAN CERMIN DARI POLA PIKIR; POLASIKAP DAN POLA PERILAKU SESEORANG

    MERUPAKAN WUJUD DARI AKTUALISASI DIRI

    KUNCI RAHASIA KEBERHASILAN SEORANG

    KEPALA SEKOLAH

    HARUS DIPELAJARI DAN DIAMALKAN OLEH

    KEPALA SEKOLAH

    Prof. Jalius Jama

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    THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION (ROH)

    MENDIDIK ADALAH:RAHMAT (Tulus & Syukur)

    AMANAH (Tanggungjawab)

    PANGGILAN (Integritas)

    BEKERJA IKHLAS

    AKTUALISASI DIRI

    IBADAH

    SENI

    KEHORMATAN

    PELAYANAN

    ROH/PHIL

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    ABILITIES OF MANAGERS AND LEADERS

    THINK: refers to the exercise of ones mental faculties to form ideas; tosolve problems; to reach conclusions; to analyze and synthesize data;

    and to reason. (cerdas dan trampil)

    SOSIALIZE: refers to ability to find a meaningful, purposeful place in

    society.

    TRANSCEND: capabable of stepping beyond its immediate experience(mampu belajar dari pengalaman)

    COMMUNICATE: not only to speak and be heard but also to listen,

    comprehend, to exchange ideas among people

    SELF-AWARNESS: Know ourselves strengths and weaknesses

    VALUE: use criteria to produce decisions on the basis fordetermining the difference between right or wrong as well as goodand bad.

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    The Innovation as Decision Process

    FIVE MAIN STEPS IN THE PROCESS: Knowledge: when an individual is exposed to the

    innovation and gain some understanding

    Persuasion: forms a favorable or unfavorable attitudetoward the innovation

    Decision: occurs when an individual engages in activitiesto a choice to adopt or reject the innovation

    Implementation: when individual put the innovation into

    use Confirmation: occurs when individual seeks for

    reinforcement of an decision that has already been madeor he/she may reverse if exposed to conflictingmessages about the innovation.

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    MASALAH DAN ISSUE STRATEGIES

    (2) KITA HIDUP DALAM ALAM YANG BERUBAH:(A) Otonomi Daerah/desentralisasi:

    Kesiapan Kemampuan Komitmen(B) Globalisasi: Arus informasi, Politik,Ekonomi, Sosial, Budaya

    (2) KEMAJUAN TEKNOLOGI

    (3) Pergeseran nilai Masyarakat & Pengelola

    (4) Komitmen: Sistem Nilai pd masyarakat moderen

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    ELEMENTS OF DIFFUSION

    There is so much interest in the diffusion of innovations:because getting a new idea adopted, IS NOT EASYeven when it has obvious advantages,

    Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is

    communicated through certain channels overtime among

    members of a social system.

    Communication is a process in which participants create

    and share information with one another in order to reacha mutual understanding.

    Communication is as two way process of convergence,

    rather than as a one way

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    FOUR ELEMENTS IN THEDIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS

    The Innovation is an idea, practice or object thatis perceived as new by an individual or other unit

    of adoption. If the idea for the individual, it is an

    innovation

    Communication as the process by whichparticipants create and share information with

    one another in order to reach a mutual

    understanding

    Time is a dimension of innovation decision

    process passes from knowledge to adoption or

    rejection

    A Social System is defined as a set of

    ELEMENTS OF DIFFUSION

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    ELEMENTS OF DIFFUSION

    (Carl Rogers, 1982)

    Why there is so much interest in the diffusion ofinnovations is because getting a new idea adopted,

    even when it has obvious advantages,

    IS OFTEN VERY DIFFICULT

    4. Diffusion is the process by which an innovation iscommunicated through certain channels overtimeamong members of a social system.

    5. Communication is a process in which participantscreate and share information with one another inorder to reach a mutual understanding.

    6. Communication is as two way process of

    convergence, rather than as a one way

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    CHARACTERISTICS: RATE OFADOPTION

    (1) Relative advantage is a degree to which an innovation is

    perceived better than the idea supersedes

    (2) Compatibility is a degree to which an innovation is perceived

    as being consistent with the existing value, past experences

    and needs of potential adopters

    (3) Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived

    as difficult to understand and use

    (4) Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be

    experimented with on limited basis. New ideas that can be

    tried on the installment plan will generally be adopted more

    quickly than those that are not divisible

    (5) Observability is the degree to which the results of innovation

    are visible to others. The easier it is for individuals to see the

    results of innov., the more likely they to adopt.

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    ADOPTER CATEGORIES

    (1) Innovators: Venturesome(2) Early adopters: Respectable

    (3) Early moyority: Deliberate

    (4) Late Majority: Skeptical(5) Laggards: Traditional

    Opinion Leaders

    Change Agent

    Communiation

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    The Innovation as Decision Process

    FIVE MAIN STEPS IN THE PROCESS:(2) Knowledge: when an individual is exposed to theinnovation and gain some understanding

    (3) Persuasion: forms a favorable or unfavorable

    attitude toward the innovation(4) Decision: occurs when an individual engages in

    activities to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation

    (5) Implementation: when individual put the innovation

    into use(6) Confirmation: occurs when individual seeks for

    reinforcement of an decision that has already beenmade or he/she may reverse if exposed to conflicting

    messages about the innovation.

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    (Prinsip 1) KERJA ADALAH IBADAHPersembahan diri, penyerahan, kesadaran,

    pengabdian dan sungguh-sungguh

    Ibadah adalah persembahan, pemasrahan & penyerahan diri

    Mulai dengan niat, maka timbul the great power. Anda akanmemperoleh pahala sebesar yang anda niatkan.

    Keberhasilan seorang diukur dari proses; bukan outcome,

    karena Outcome hanyalah akibat dari sebuah proses.

    Kebaikan anda, sekecil apapun, akan dicatat sebagai pahala,dan akan dibalas, bisa dalam bentuk lain, pada waktu lain.

    Bantulah siapa saja, dlm bentuk apapun, sekecil apapun,

    maka akan jadi ibadah anda kepada Tuhan, amal bagisesama. Itulah milik anda yg abadi. Menanam kebaikan didunia; anda akan menuai nanti di akhirat.

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    (Prinsip 2) KERJA ADALAH RAHMAT

    BEKERJA TULUS PENUH SYUKUR Apakah rahmat? Rahmat adalah kebaikan yg kita terima

    tanpa syarat, tdk dikaitkan dgn prestasi dan kebaikan kita. Rahmat adalah anugerah, berkah yang kita terima atas

    kasih pemberi. Kalau kita selalu baik dan menjadi rahmat bagi sesama,

    maka kebaikan dan rahmat akan selalu bersama kita

    Tuhan yg Maha Rahman dan Maha Rahim sbg bentukkasih sayang

    Pada kejadian tertentu orang menamakan MUKJIZAT Santunan kemanusiaan sbg Rahmat Umum: Berbahasa,

    beriman, mengasihi,berhati nurani, berkesenian, kreatif,berpikir konsepsual, merasa dilindungi dan dipelihara Karena Tuhan maha rahman dan rahim maka kita merasa

    tenang dan mampu bekerja (sbg rahmat) Ada orang yang tidak memahami/mengapresiasi rahmat,

    dia acuh dan menganggap memang sudah begitu; tdkbersyukur

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    (Prinsip 3) MENDIDIK ADALAH AMANAH

    Bekerja benar penuh tanggungjawab Kerja adalah titipan berharga yang dipercayakan dan terikat

    secara moral. Mhs tdk belajar hanya untuk sekadar lulus ujian. Anak dan siswa anda adalah amanah yang dititipkan. Ilmu yang

    anda miliki adalah amanah (titipan). Anda punya orang tuayang memberi amanah, dengan doa agar anda menjadi orangyang bermakna bagi umat.

    Anda sendiri adalah milik Sang Pencipta dan memiliki potensi,akal sebagai amanah: spiritual, intelektual: logika, kemampuanberpikir), berbahasa (verbal), berhitung, seni, emosional dankreativitas, yang dapat dikembangkan (yang juga amanah)untuk diabdikan kepada sesama makhluk Allah.

    Kita manusia dalam melaksanakan amanah harus melakukanyang terbaik, jujur, menjaga harkat dan martabat sebagaimakhluk yang dimuliakan.

    Manusia yang baik adalah manusia yang paling bermanfaatbagi orang lain.

    Kemampuan menggali dan mengembangkan potensi diri(belajar) adalah amanah.

    Prof Jalius Jama

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    MENGAPA PENTING KEPEMIMPINAN ?

    BISAKAH ANDA MENGINGAT KEMBALIMASA LALU TATKALA ANDA BARU

    MENJADI PNS YUNIOR;

    SUATU HARI ANDA HARUS MENGHADAPKEPALA DINAS

    BAGAIMANAKAH PERASAAN ANDA ???

    CEMAS BERCAMPUR GUGUP

    TAKUT SALAH; TAKUT KENA MARAH???

    NAH, YOU DONT DO THAT NOW !!!

    Prof. Jalius Jama

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    FOUR ELEMENTS IN THEDIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS

    (1) The Innovation is an idea, practice or object that isperceived as new by an individual or other unit of

    adoption. If the idea for the individual, it is an

    innovation

    (2) Communication as the process by which participantscreate and share information with one another in

    order to reach a mutual understanding

    (3) Time is a dimension of innovation decision process

    passes from knowledge to adoption or rejection

    (4) A Social System is defined as a set of interrelated

    units that are engaged in joint problem solving to

    accomplish a common goal.

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    ADOPTER CATEGORIES

    (1) Innovators: VenturesomeOpinion Leaders

    Change Agent

    Communication(5) Early adopters: Respectable

    (6) Early moyority: Deliberate

    (7) Late Majority: Skeptical

    (8) Laggards: Traditional

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    APAKAH KEPEMIMPINAN ???

    Definition: Leadership as a process of influencingthe activities of an organized group in its task ofgoal-setting and goal achievement

    KEPEMIMPINAN ADALAH KEKUATAN (power)MEMPENGARUHI DIRI SENDIRI DAN ORANGLAIN/KELOMPOK UNTUK BEKERJASAMA SECARAIKHLAS DALAM UPAYA MENCAPAI TUJUANBERSAMA

    Ada dua strategi manajemen: REACTIVE MAINTENANCE

    PROACTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL

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    MENGAPA KEPEMIMPINAN ???

    BERBAHAGIALAH GURU YANG MEMILIKI

    PEMIMPIN (KEPSEK) YANG PEDULI

    PENDIDIKAN ADALAH MENCIPTAKANSITUASI DAN KONDISI YANG BERSAHABAT HANGAT

    MENYENANGKAN MENYENANGKAN= BAHAGIA MANUSIA = PUNYA PERASAAN

    BAGAIMANA BILA ANDA JADI PEMIMPIN?

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    SEPULUH FAKTOR SEKOLAH EFEKTIF

    SEKOLAH EFEKTIF

    Kepemimpinan

    Profesional

    Kesamaan

    Visi, Misi danTujuan

    Pemberdayaan

    Potensi siswa

    Supervisi &

    Monitoring Pemberdayaan

    Potensi Guru

    Pemberdayaan

    Stakeholders

    Komite SekolahDewan Pend.

    Sumber

    DanaDukungan

    Pemda/DPR

    Lingkungan

    Internal/ekst.

    Prof. Jalius Jama

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    FUNGSI DAN PERAN KEPALA SEKOLAH

    MOTIVATOR ADMINISTRATOR

    LEADERMANAJER

    EDUCATOR SUPERVISORKEPEMIMPINANKEP. SEKOLAH

    INOVATOR

    El f t f Eff ti S h l

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    Eleven factors for Effective Schools(Sammon et al, 1994)

    Professional leadership (Kepemimpinan Profesional) Shared vision and goals (Berbagi visi dan Tujuan)

    A learning environment (Menciptakan Lingkungan)

    Concentration on teaching and learning

    Purposeful teaching High expectations

    Positive reinforcement

    Monitoring progress

    Pupil rights and responsibilities Home-school partnership

    A learning organization

    El f f Eff

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    Eleven factors for Effective Organization(Sammon et al, 1994)

    Professional leadership Shared vision and goals

    A learning environment

    Concentration on Tasks and People High expectations

    Positive reinforcement

    Monitoring progress Cooperative-Collaborative and partnership

    Friendship and warm environment

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    TENDENCIES OFMANAGERS AND LEADERS

    Leaders tend to be HUMAN RELATION-orientedand managers

    tend to be TASK-oriented.

    Managers strive for order, but leaders tolerate ambiguty.

    Managers try to correct failures; leaders turn failures into

    successes.

    Leaders inspire people, but managers depend on systems

    Managers attemp to adjust to change, but leaders attempt to

    produce a change. Without change there can be no progress.

    Prof. Jalius Jama

    B L T E OF M N GER ND LE DER

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    ABILITIES OF MANAGERS AND LEADERSAS WELL AS SUPERVISORS

    THINK: refers to the exercise of ones mental faculties to

    form ideas; to solve problems; to reach conclusions; toanalyze and synthesize data; and to reason. (cerdas dantrampil)

    SOSIALIZE: refers to ability to find a meaningful, purposeful

    place in society. TRANSCEND: capabable of stepping beyond its immediate

    experience (mampu belajar dari pengalaman)

    COMMUNICATE: not only to speak and be heard but also tolisten, comprehend, to exchange ideas among people

    SELF-AWARNESS: Know ourselves strengths andweaknesses

    VALUE: use criteria to produce decisions on the basis fordetermining the difference between right or wrong as

    well as good and bad.

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    PENDIDIKAN SEBAGAI SISTEM

    PENGELOLA

    DAN GURUPROGRAM/

    KURIKULUM

    MANAJEMEN

    STRATEGI

    SARANA/

    FASILITAS

    INPUT/

    SISWAOUTPUT/

    LULUSAN

    PROSES

    PENDIDIKAN

    Prof.Jalius Jama

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    APAKAH KONUNIKASI???

    (1) Good leaders listen (mendengar)

    (2) Effective leaders are fair (jujur dan adil)

    (3) Effective leaders are goal oriented

    (4) Effective leaders direct actions of others

    (5) Good leaders know how to evaluate people

    and programs

    (6) Leaders are responsible for their own andgroup

    (7) Effective leaders are skilled

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    ELEMENTS OF DIFFUSION

    Why there is so much interest in the diffusion ofinnovations is because getting a new idea adopted,

    even when it has obvious advantages,

    IS OFTEN VERY DIFFICULT

    4. Diffusion is the process by which an innovation iscommunicated through certain channels overtimeamong members of a social system.

    5. Communication is a process in which participants

    create and share information with one another inorder to reach a mutual understanding.

    6. Communication is as two way process ofconvergence, rather than as a one way

    FOUR ELEMENTS IN THE

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    FOUR ELEMENTS IN THEDIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS

    (1) The Innovation is an idea, practice or object that isperceived as new by an individual or other unit of

    adoption. If the idea for the individual, it is an

    innovation

    (2) Communication as the process by which participantscreate and share information with one another in

    order to reach a mutual understanding

    (3) Time is a dimension of innovation decision process

    passes from knowledge to adoption or rejection

    (4) A Social System is defined as a set of interrelated

    units that are engaged in joint problem solving to

    accomplish a common goal.

    CHARACTERISTICS: RATE OF

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    CHARACTERISTICS: RATE OFADOPTION

    (1) Relative advantage is a degree to which an innovation is

    perceived better than the idea supersedes

    (2) Compatibility is a degree to which an innovation is perceived

    as being consistent with the existing value, past experences

    and needs of potential adopters

    (3) Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived

    as difficult to understand and use

    (4) Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be

    experimented with on limited basis. New ideas that can be

    tried on the installment plan will generally be adopted morequickly than those that are not divisible

    (5) Observability is the degree to which the results of innovation

    are visible to others. The easier it is for individuals to see the

    results of innov., the more likely they to adopt.

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    ADOPTER CATEGORIES

    (1) Innovators: Venturesome(2) Early adopters: Respectable

    (3) Early mayority: Deliberate

    (4) Late Majority: Skeptical(5) Laggards: Traditional

    Opinion Leaders

    Change Agent

    Communiation

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    The Innovation as Decision Process

    FIVE MAIN STEPS IN THE PROCESS:(2) Knowledge: when an individual is exposed to theinnovation and gain some understanding

    (3) Persuasion: forms a favorable or unfavorable

    attitude toward the innovation(4) Decision: occurs when an individual engages in

    activities to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation

    (5) Implementation: when individual put the innovation

    into use(6) Confirmation: occurs when individual seeks for

    reinforcement of an decision that has already beenmade or he/she may reverse if exposed to conflicting

    messages about the innovation.

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    THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION (ROH)

    MENDIDIK ADALAH:RAHMAT (Tulus & Syukur)

    AMANAH (Tanggungjawab)PANGGILAN (Integritas)

    BEKERJA IKHLAS

    AKTUALISASI DIRI

    IBADAH

    SENI

    KEHORMATAN

    PELAYANAN

    ROH/PHIL

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    Metode Ilmiah/PENELITIAN

    FENOMENA:ExperienceInformasi

    FaktaData

    Prosedur

    To know

    ILMU(konsep+prinsip)

    ILMU vs PENGETAHUAN

    PENGETAHUAN

    (knowledge)

    Konsepsualisasi(Pemahaman)

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    6 KRITERIA KEPEMIMPINAN

    INTERNAL FACTORS

    INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY SELF SIGNIFICANCE

    VITALITY (DAYA TAHAN) TRAINING (PELATIHAN)

    EXPERIENCE REPUTATION

    EXTERNAL FACTORS ACCEPTABILITY

    TRACK RECORDS

    KECERDASAN

    IQ

    EQ: self controll, patience, tekun, positive thinking

    SQ: rendah hati

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    TAKSONOMI TUJUAN

    INSTRUKSIONAL

    Bloom

    PSIKOMOTOR

    Afektif

    Kognitif