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  • 8/12/2019 Sadhana Chatushtaya by Swami Sivananda




  • 8/12/2019 Sadhana Chatushtaya by Swami Sivananda


  • 8/12/2019 Sadhana Chatushtaya by Swami Sivananda


  • 8/12/2019 Sadhana Chatushtaya by Swami Sivananda


  • 8/12/2019 Sadhana Chatushtaya by Swami Sivananda



    Sri Swami Sivananda

    THE"'(({::: 'OCIETY.O. SHIVANANDANAGAR-24g 1 92

    Distt. Tehri'Garhwal, Uttaranchal, Himalayas, lndia

    Price I 2004 [Rs. 20/-

  • 8/12/2019 Sadhana Chatushtaya by Swami Sivananda


    First Blition: 1958Revised Second Edition: 2fi)4

    (2,m0 Copies)

    @The Divine Life Tbust Society

    Published by Swami Jivanmuktananda for The DivineLife Society, Shivanandanagar, and printed by him

    at the Yoga-Vedanta Forest Academy Press,P.O. Shivanandanagar, Distt. Tbhri-Garhwal,

    Uttaranchal, Himalayas, India

  • 8/12/2019 Sadhana Chatushtaya by Swami Sivananda



    His Holiness Sri Swami Sivanandaji Maharaj

    did not write textbooks as such. The books he

    wrote were the outpouridgs of wisdom from hisown direct realisation of the Tiuth-

    From his books you will derive not only thebenefit of his wisdom and knowledge of both

    practical andesoteric matters pertaining to Yoga,

    but also the power of his spiritual force.

    Sri Swami Sivanandaji had a unique style-simple, direct and compelling. His books are notdull treatises on Yoga and philosoPhY, rather hisenthusiasm and eagerness to help all is evident inevery p?Be, lifting the reader to new heights ofunderstanding.

    During recent years there has been a greatspiritual revival and people in India and abroadhave taken seriously to the study of Yoga andVedanta. But, in practice, it has been found thatthere is-in keeping with the rapid tempo of lifeitself in the modern world-an unpardonablehurry and neglect of essentials, in the field of the


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    . r I - -,1-

    practice of Yoga, too. Seekers after Ti.uth areimpatient to enter into the Tianscendental Realmof Self-realisation; practitioners of yoga expect toenter into Samadhi a week after taking up thepractice'concentration and meditation,.

    The all-important preparation is woefullyneglected. Our ancient scriptures have given theplace of greatest prominence to these preparatorysteps-Yama-Niyama or the Sadhana Chatushtaya.His Holiness Sri Swami Sivanandaji Maharaj, too,has been forewarning students of yoga not toneglect this; and as a matter of fact he hasdeclared that


    the attention paid tothese preparatory steps-the cultivation ofl virtuesand the eradication of vices -the more rapidwould the march of the seeker towards the Goalbe.

    To the sincere and earnest seeker after Tiuth,therefore, this book is a boon. It gives him thekey to success in Yoga.



  • 8/12/2019 Sadhana Chatushtaya by Swami Sivananda


    SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA(The Four Qualifrcations)

    BneHue-vIDYA or the Science of the Self isnot a subject that can be understood andrealised by mere intellectual study, reasoning

    or ratiocination or even by discussions orarguments. It is the most difficult of allsciences. Mere scholarly erudition and vaststudy with a high degree of intelligence alonecannot help one in the practical realisation ofthe Ti.uth inculcated by this Science. Itdemands perfect discipline, a discipline that isnot to be found in our universities andcolleges, and solid Sadhana for theachievement of the goal that is indicated bythis Para-Vidya or Highest Science. One has

    to reach a realm where there is neither lightnor darkness, neither East nor West, neithergain nor loss-a realm which can never bereached by either the mind or the senses.


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    Sadhana Chatushtaya or the fourfold meansfor salvation or the four kinds of spiritualpractices, is a pre-requisite to the aspirantj in thepath of Jnana Yoga (Vedanta), or, for that matter,in any system of evolution towards Godhead. Thefour means are:

    1. Viveka-discrimination between Sat (real)and Asat (unreal).

    Z. Vairagya-dispassion or indifference tosensual enjoyments herein and hereafter.

    3. Shad Sampat (6 virtues):(a) Sama-peace of mind through eradicationof Vasanas.(b) Dana-control of sense organs.(c) Uparati-satiety, renunciation of all works(Sannyasa).(d) Titiloha - forbearance.(e) Sraddha-faith in scriptures and theGuru's words.(f) Samadhana-concentration of mind,balance of mind.4. Mumukshutva-Intense longing for


    A student who treads the path of Truth mustequip himself with these four means. OnIy thencan he march quite fearlessly on the path. Not aniota of spiritual progress is ever polsible unless


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    - , _

    one is really endowed with these fourfoldqualifications. These four means are as old as theVedas or even this world itself. Every religionprescribed these four essential requisites for theaspirant. Only ignorant people resort to lingualwarfare and raise unnecessary questions. This hasbecome an ignobie habit in them. You should not

    mind this. It is your duty to try to eat the fruitinstead of wasting time in counting the leaves ofthe tree. Try now to know what these four meansare.


    A firm conviction that Brahman alone isreaiity, and all else is unreality, is Viveka. It isdiscrimination between the .real and the unreal(Sat and Asat), permanent and impermanent(Nitya and Anitya), Self and not-Self ($tman andAnatman). Viveka dawns in a man on iccount ofthe grace of God. The grace can come only whenone has done incessant selfless service in countlessbirths with the feeling of offering everything to theLord. The door of the higher mind is flung openwhen there is awakening of discrimination.

    This discrimination is a strong sword todestroy worldly desires, ambitions and earthlyattachments. It is an agent of wisdom, a secondary,intuitive eye of wisdom. It is a spiritual faculty thatSADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    I tannihilates the clinging of the mind to earthlyobjects.

    Discrimination also dawns through virtuousactions done in past births, holy company or studyof sacred scriptures and selfless service or workdone without the expectation of fruits and withoutegoism.

    The body, mind, senses, intellect and theworldly phenomena are temporary. Their value isimpermanent. They are identified with the pairs ofopposites, therefore they are unreal and not to besought after. Tiuth is timeless, causeless,enduringly blissful, one without a second, the onlyentity to be sought after, the only thing that cangive real happiness.

    The five sheaths are floating in the universalconsciousness like straw in water. The fivechanging Kosas or the physical, mental, vital,intellectual and bliss sheaths are mixed up withthe eternal Atman or the Self. There is childhood,boyhood, adolescence and old age for this physicalbody, but there is an unchanging background forthis ever-changing body and mind, like theblack-board in a class room or screen in a cinemaon which are manifested various forms and figures.The witness or the silent spectator of thesechanges of the body and mind is'permanent andunchanging. He is like the all-pervading ether. He


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    pervades, permeates and interpenetrates all thesechanging forms like the thread in a garland offlowers. This eternal essence or Atman is


    everywhere and in everything-atoms, electrons,ants and mountains. He dwells in the chambers ofyour own heart. He is the soul of this tree, stone,flower, goat, dog, cat, man and saint. He is thecommon property of all-a saint or a sinner' aking or a peasant, a beggar or a baron, a scavengeror a cobbler. He is the very source of life andthought.

    The aspirant should learn to discriminatebetween this eternal and unchanging substratum of

    all objects and the ever-changing names andforms. He should seriously engage himself at alltimes to separate the eternal unchanging Self fromthese names and forms. He should try to separatehimself from the changing, impermanent fivesheaths, from the passions, emotions, feelings,thoughts and sentiments and from the oscillatingmind itself. He should distinguish betrveen themind and the witness who moves and illumines themind; between ordinary sensation, feelings andsentiments and perfect awareness of pureconsciousness which remains unaffected andunattached; between personality and individuality.He must also separate himself from the falsesuperimpositions of the body-position, rank,SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 11

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    , . ry

    avocation, birth, caste, stage and order of life.These are all accidental appendages of the falsepersonality.

    When he sees a fascinating flower or anyattractive form, he should philosophise withinhimself: "This beautiful flower will fade within aday, however sweet it may be. It will be turnedinto dust tomorrow. This beautiful woman also

    willturn to dust. Even the mighty Himalayas, thoughthey appear to be permanent, are sure to tumbledown like a pack of cards one day. The beauty inthe flower, the feminine form and the icylf1qalayl1 is only a reflection of that unchanging

    Self within the infinite undecaying Beauty o1beauties."Mind wants repetition of a pleasure once

    enjoyed. Memory of pleasure arises in the mind.Memory induces imagination and thinking. In thisway, attachment arises. Thiough repetition a habitis formed. Habit causes strong craving. Mind thenexercises its rule over the poor, helpless,weak-willed worldlings.

    As soon as discrimination arises, the mind,spower becomes weakened. It tries to recede andretrace its steps to its original home, the heart. Itspoisonous fangs are extracted by discrimination. Itcannot do anything in the presence ofdiscrimination. The will becomes stronger and12 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    stronger when discrimination is awakened, thusenabling us to get out of the miserable worldlylife.

    When you are fully aware of the magnitude ofhuman suffering in this miserable 'relative' world,you will naturally begin to discriminate betweenwhat is real and what is unreal. Then sincerity orfaith will develop and aspiration or keen longingto realise God will be felt. You will have toremember the Tiuth constantly and assertrepeatedly 'Aham Brahmasmi -I am Brahrnan'. Byincessant practice name, form and thoughts willvanish and you will realise Brahman. This isVedanta Sadhana. Discrimination, sincerity,aspiration and remembrance are the various stagesfor realisation of Brahman.

    The ordinary man of the world identifieshimself with the perishable body, impermandntobjects, wife, son, cattle and property, and hencegets attached to these external names and forms.He develops delusion, love and hatred, pride ofcaste, position, etc. He says: "I am a Brahmin, Iam a rich man, I am a genius, I am very powerful,my wife comes from a noble family and she is agraduate of the Bombay University, and I myselfam a member of the Legislative Assembly." Hethus brags of his false beauty, false possessions,intellectual attainments, etc. Thus he is caught up


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    in the ever-revolving wheel of births and deaths.He is born again and again in this world of sorrow,undergoing various sorts of miseries, troubles,sorrows and pains only on account ofnon-discrimination.

    Discrimination gives inner strength andmental peace. One who has discrimination gets notroubles. He is always on the alert. He never getsentangled in anything. He has far-sightedness andknows the true value of the objects of thisuniverse. He is fully aware of the worthlessness ofthese shallow toys. Nothing can tempt him. Maya

    cannot approach him now.Viveka should be developed to the ma,rimum

    degree; one should be well-established in it. Itshould not be an ephemeral or occasional mood inan aspirant, but become part and parcel of hisnature.


    not fail him when he is introuble, when any difficulty stares him in the face.He should exercise it at all times without anyeffort.

    Those who have done countless virtuousdeeds in their previous births will have the goodfortune through the grace of God to have Satsangaof Mahatmas, Sadhus, Bhaktas, Yogis, Jnanis andSannyasis. If one is careless in the beginning,Viveka may come and go, so the aspirant should


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    live in the company of sages for a long time till itburns in him like a big steadY flame.

    Maya is very powerful. She tries her extremelevel best to lead the aspirant astray. She throwsmany temptations and obstacles on the path ofyoung inexperienced aspirants. Therefore thecompany of sages and Mahatmas is like animpenetrable fortress for the neophyte. Norv notemptations can assail him. He will undoubtedlydevilop true and lasting discrimination which willbe permanent and spontaneous. Then only is hetruly and perfectly safe. The dangerous zone ispasied. Only a true Viveki can claim to be the

    iichest, happiest and most powerful man in theworld. He is a rare spiritual gem, a beaconlightand torchbearer. If Viveka is developed, all otherqualifications will come by themselves.

    The aspirant should separate himself from theShad-Urmis or six waves in the 'ocean' of Samsara,viz., birth, death, hunger, thirst, exhilaration andgrief. Birth and death belong to the physical body;hunger and thirst belong to the Prana; exhilarationand grief are the attributes of the mind. The Soulis unattached. These six cannot touch the Atman

    which is subtle like the all-pervading ether.The aspirant should also separate himself

    from the senses. He should not take upon himselfthe functions of the senses. He should stand as a


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    spectator and witness of the activities of the mind,Prana and the senses. The senses and the mind are

    like iron pieces in contact with a magnet. Theyfunction by borrowing the light and power fromthe source, the eternal Atman.

    Meditation on the following verses of theBhagavad Gita and on the special formula of SriSankara will pave a long

    way in the developmentof your Viveka and in separating yourself from theillusory vehicles-the Indriyas, prana, mind andthe five sheaths. The formula of Sri Sankara is"Brahma satyam jagat-mithya; jivo brahmaiva naaparah-Brahman (the Eternal) alone is Tiuth,this world is unreal; the Jiva is identical withBrahman." The Bhagavad Gita says: .,The unrealhas no being, the real never ceases to be; the truthabout both have been perceived by the seers ofthe essence'of things." (I-16) Reflection on thisverse will infuse discrimination. ,, ,I do.nothing atall', thus would the harmonised knower of Tiuththink-seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating,moving, sleeping, breathing, speaking, givin ,grasping, opening and closing the eyes_convincedthat the senses move among the sense-objects.,,(V-8, 9).

    You can separate yourself from the i"rr"sby meditating upon the meaning of these twoVCTSES.

    "Allactions are wrought by the qualities of16 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    nature only. The self, deluded by egoism, thinks, 'Iam the doer'. But he, O mighty armed, who knows

    the essence of the divisions of the qualities andfunctions, holding that 'The qualities move amidthe qualities', is not attached." Bhagavad Gita(lll-27, 28). By meditating upon this idea you canseparate yourself from the three gums. "He whosees that Prakriti verily performs all actions andthat the Self is actionless, he alone sees."Bhagavad Gita (XIII-29).

    It is a faculty of Sattva (purity) thatdifferentiates the permanent from theimpermanent, the Atman from the Anatman. Thismeans the ability to do the right thing at the righttime and in the right place. You can developdiscrimination through the grace of the Lord,selfless service, enquiry and study of scriptures.Keep this faculty bright and sharp. [t may become

    blunt ifyou are careless and non-vigilant, if your

    dispassion and Sadhana slacken, if you mix freelywith worldly persons.

    Discrimination acts like a sieve. It rejects allundesirable things and accepts or selects the onedesirable or real thing (the Atman). If it is notwell-grounded, it will evaporate like ether verysoon. Always protect and intensify discrimination.Inquiry of 'Who am I?'will proceed automatically.This inquiry is like the emanation of scent from


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    Vairagya-DispassionVairagya (dispassion, indifference or

    non-attachment) is the second of the fourfoldqualification of the spiritual seeker. It is giving upof attachment and desire for all mundaneenjoyments. Dispassion is indifference andnon-attachment to sensual enjoyments herein andhereafter. This is an important requisite forattaining God-realisation. It is born of andsustained by right discrimination. Vairagya isindispensable. Without it no spiritual life ispossible.

    Vairagya is the rein by which theuncontrollable mind is restrained. Ripe Vairagya isintense attachment to Atmic bliss and strongdispassion for anything other than the Atman. Ifone considers the position and happiness ofBrahma (the creator) as the dung of a cow, thenonly he has developed a real lasting Vairagya.Temporary fleeting dispassion is not Vairagya. Itwill not help the aspirant in the attainment ofSelf-realisation.

    Vairagva is a noble and rare quality. It is thesign of true intelligence and inner wisdom. It ismore than all the academic learning of the world.Scholarship and erudition become endowed withdignity and meaning only when accompanied bydispassion. Vairarya is the means to peace, bliss


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    and freedom from all fear; it is true strength andthe rein by which the uncontrollable mind isrestrained.Vairagya is of two kinds, viz., temporaryfleeting dispassion (Karana Vairagya) on account

    Vairagya of

    of some miseries; and ripe dispassion(Viveka-purvaka Vairagya) on account ofdiscrimination between the Real and unreal. Themind of a man who has got the former type ofVairagya is simply waiting for a chance to get backthe things that are given up. As soon as the firstopportunity occurs, he gets a downfall and goesback to his former state. Enjoyment does havoc in

    him with a vengeance and with redoubled forcefrom reaction. But the other man who has givenup the objects on account of Viveka, because heunderstands the illusory nature of the object, willhave spiritual advancement. He will not have adownfall.

    Man is bound to this world through passionor attachment. He is liberated through Vairagya.Look into the defects of sensual life or sensualpleasure and you will develop dispassion. Sensualpleasure is momentary, deceptive, illusory andimaginary. Enjoymenr cannot bring aboutsatisfaction of a desire; on the contrary it makesthe mind more restless after enjoyment throughintense craving. Sensual pleasure is the cause for20 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    birth and death. It is an enemy of devotion,wisdom and peace.

    That particular state of mind, which manifestsin one who does not hanker for objects seen, orheard, and in which one is conscious of havingcontrolled or mastered those objects, isnon-attachment.

    It is common to have dispassion for someparticular objects because of some cause or other.But by having dispassion for all objects at alltimes, one will get knowledge of the Self. Onlydispassion born of discrimination between theReal and the unreal will be of a lasting nature.Such a Vairagya alone will help you to attainspiritual progress and illumination.

    For a man of Vairagya the world has noattraction. It is like a straw. Dispassion producesconcentration of mind and generates burningMumukshutva

    (strong yearning for liberation oremancipation).

    If you have Vairarya, destruction of the mindand knowledge of Brahman will come, and if youget Vairagya that is the sign of purity of mind.

    If you develop Vairagya, if you subdue yourIndriyas and shun the enjoyments and pleasures ofthis world as dung and poison (as they are mixedwith pain, sin, fear, craving, miseries, disease, oldage and death) nothing can tempt you in thisSADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 21

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    world. You will have eternal peace and infinitebliss. Sex and other earthly objects will have noattraction for you. Lust cannot take hold of you.

    Without Vairagya there cannot be any realspiritual progress. In Vedanta it is the only vital,fundamental Sadhana. If you have Vairagya, allother virtues will come by themselves. PatanjaliMaharshi says: "The mind is controlled bymeditation or Sadhana and Vairagya." They arethe two wings which help the aspirant to soar highinto the realm of bliss. The same thing LordKrishna also says: "The mind is controlled bypractice and Vairagya." By Vairarya, the mind isdetached. He who works in a detached way is notbound by Karma. So it is an aspirant's duty tocultivate this one virtue, Vairagya.

    How to develop dispassion? By looking intothe defects of sensual life and readingbooks-lives of saints, Bhartrihari's VairagyaSataka and Vairagya Prakarana in Yoga Vasishtha.These will increase your desire for liberation andyour conviction in spiritual life. Sri Rama gives abeautiful description of the disastrous effects oflust, wealth, the miseries of birth and infancy inthe Vairagya Prakarana. Everyone should read it.Everybody should study these books. Advancedstudents should not think that they have attainedSelf-realisation and that they need not study22 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    r -

    books. These books are important to neophytes,middle students and advanced students.

    Meditation on the following Slokas of theBhagavad Gita will induce true dispassion. "Theenjoyments that are born of contacts are onlygenerators of pain, for they have a beginning andan end, O Arjuna. The wise man does not rejoice

    in them."(V-22) "Indifference

    tothe objects of

    the senses and also absence of egoism; perceptionof (or reflecton on) the evil in birth, death, oldage, sickness and pain..." (X[I-8). "That happinesswhich arises from the contact of the sense-organswith the objects, which is at first like nectar, and in

    the end like poison...." (XVIII-38) "Having comgto this impermanent and unhappy world, do thouworship Me." (IX-33)

    In the early morning you should repeat theseverses, then start your meditation.

    Vairagya Dindima is a very great helpto

    aspirants. Patanjali says: "Everything is pain only,for the wise." Even the bliss of Savikalpa Samadhiis a hindrance. One gets false satisfaction andstops his Sadhana, thinking that he has attainedSelf-realisation. Only in Nirvikalpa Samadhi isthere the greatest happiness. A11 othels areproductive of pain.

    Remembrance of death and the pains ofworldly life also will help you to a considerable


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    - .

    find such a statement anywhere in the scriptures?Certainly not. This is extreme foolishness. Some

    aspirants who have no idea of the nature of truedispassion and who have not lived under theguidance of their masters for some time, commitsuch ignoble acts. They can never get salvation bytaking to wrong austerities even though theirmotive may be pure. They cannot entertain thefeeling 'I am the Atman' just at the time ofcommitting the act of suicide. Horrible thoughtswill crowd at the critical juncture.

    Another foolish aspirant gave up his clothingall at once. He developed rheumatism, malariaand enlarged spleen. During the period of sicknessall cravings that were temporarily suppressedasserted themselves in him with re-doubled force.He became a slave of the tongue and craved formany varieties of food. He could not suppress thecravings, ate indiscriminately and died of acutediarrhoea.

    You should train the mind in meditationgradually and make it taste the inner bliss.Gradually it will leave off its old habits and oldcravings and you can get yourself established in

    true dispassion.You should give up those articles of food

    which you like best, for some time. You shoulddiscipline all the sense organs in a perfect manner


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    and always lead a simple life and eat simple food,but you should not be egoistic about yourdispassion.

    Doctors have a wide vast field for developingdispassion. Every day they see dead bodies in themortuary. Thus they have innumerable chances ofseeing Maya in her naked state. They can beconvinced beyond


    of doubt ofthe

    impermanence of life here in this world of man.The superintendent of a jail and all the officersthere also have wonderful chances for developingdispassion if they are lovers of truth. lltre sight of acondemned prisoner will open their eyes.

    The more discrimination, the more the truedispassion. The flower of dispassion graduallygrows in the garden of the mind from theunderstanding that the world is a mere appearanceand full of miseries and that Brahman alone is theonly reality full

    ofknowledge and bliss, and

    through continued practice of meditation andassociation with realised souls for a protractedperiod. Eventually all objects of the world appearbefore the dispassionate soul as trifling orworthless things. He will not give up his newspiritual life even if the wealth of the whole worldis offered to him. The Lord infuses dispassion inHis devotees in order to get rid of the clinging tosensual objects.


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    There are four stages in VairagYa:1. Yatamana: This is an attempt to stop the

    mind from running to sensual objects.2. Yyatireka: Here some objects attract youand you are endeavouring to cut off theattachment and attraction. Slowly Vairagyadevelops for these objects and then matures.When some objects tempt and attract you,you should ruthlessly avoid them. You willhave to develop Vairagya for these temptingobjects and it must mature also. In this stageyou are conscious of your degree of Vairagyatowards different objects.

    3. Ekendriya: The senses stand still orsubdued, but the mind has either like ordislike for objects. Only mind functionsindependently, now.

    4. Vasikara: In this highest stage of Vairagyathe objects no longer tempt you' They causeno attraction. The senses are perfectly quiet.Mind also is free from likes and dislikes.Then you get supremacy or independence andare conscious of your suPremacy.

    Vairagya is also of different types ordegrees-Mridu (mild), Madhyama (moderate)and Teevra (intense). Only intense Vairagya willhelp the aspirant to stick to this path. If it is of adull type, the mind will simply be waiting to get


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    back the objects that were renounced previously,and the aspirant will get a downfall. He will not beable to climb again

    to theheights

    he formerlyreached. So aspirants should be careful. Eventhough the Vairagya is of a mild type, he shouldtry to make, it moderate, and then intense Vairagyacomes through looking into the defects of sensuallife. Sensual pleasure is not real happiness. It isillusory, transient, impermanent and mixed withpain. So again and again, by looking into thedefects of sensual life, Vairagya dawns.

    Dispassion that is born of discrimination willnot fail the aspirant at any time as will thedispassion that comes temporarily when a ladygives birth to a child or when a man attends ifuneral in the crematorium.

    Vairagya is of two kinds, para Vairagya andApara Vairagya. Para Vairagya comes afiir oneattains Self-realisation. The whole world thenlooks " like a straw. Then Vairagya becomesperfectly habitual.

    "Para Vairagya or supreme non-attachment isthat state wherein even the attachment to thequalities (Sattva, Rajas and Thmas) drops owing tothe kno-rvledge

    of Purusha"patanjali,s

    Yoga Sutras(I-16). In Apara Vairagya there is preponderanceof Sattva. Sattva is mixed with Rajas, but there isabsence of Thmas. The Yogi gets Siddhis. The yogi


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    without thoughts of enjoyment of some kind oranother. People invent various sorts of subtleenjoyments, and modern science has mademarvellous contributions towards bringing forthrefined ways of enjoyment. Modern civilisation isonly another name for sensual enjoyment. Hotels,cinemas, aeroplanes and radios intensiff sensual

    enjoyment. Man invents new dishes, new sympsand new drinks to satisfy his palate. Fashion indress is making vast strides year by year; so is thecase with hair styles. Even the man who is treadingthe path of truth wishes to find out lasting andintense sensual enjoyments by means of his Yogapractices. This is a subtle temptation. The sincereaspirant will resolutely turn his back on all sorts ofrefined, subtle, intense forms of enjoyments hereinand hereafter. He will treat them as offal or aspoison.

    The two currents of the mind-attraction andrepulsion-really constitute the world. The mindgets intensely attached to pleasant objects throughattraction, because it derives pleasure from them.Wherever there is sensation of pleasurd, the mindgets glued, as it were, to the object that givespleasure. This is what is called attachment whichbrings only bondage and pain. When the object iseither withdrawn or perishes, the mind getsunspeakable pain. Attraction is the root cause for


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    human sufferings. The mind runs from thoseoUi"o. which giie pain. Hatred arises in the mind'

    For instance, nobody likes a cobra, a tiger or ai*,pior. Attraction and pleasure' repulsion-andpain co-e*ist. A worldly man is. a. slave of theseiwo mighty currents. Ue is tossed about hither andit iitr".ii("a piece of straw. He smiles' when pt.uture and weeps when- he gets pain' HeifingJ to pleasant objects and runs away fromobjects that cause Pain.

    It is common to have dispassion for someparticutar objects by some cause or other' But by^having dispaision for all objects at all times' one

    will get knowledge of the Self'One cent of pleasure is mixed with ninenty

    nine cents of pain. Pleasure that is mixed withp"in, t"u. and worry is no pleasure at all' If you"u.gii, t" analyse carefully this one cent ofpiJurrr., it will dwindle into airy nothing' You will^find tt ut it is mere play of the mind' Wake up'open your eyes and develop discrimination' You.innoi get real happiness from finite objects that;;; .o,idition.d by time, space and causation'Eter.ral, infinite btitt that is independent ofoUjects' can be had only g t " Atman' theina*"Uet of your heart' Therefore, shun theexternal things ruthlesslY.

    Why do men run after t"ntuul pl"ut"tt?


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    What is their idea of happiness? Do Samskarasforce them to repeat the same sensual acts? Isman a creature of environment or circumstances?Can he not obliterate his innate tendencies bysuitable means?

    On account of ignorance man runs hither andthither to seek happiness in objects. A little gingeibread and a sweetmeat, a son and a ynrrgf *i-f",-some

    position and power and some m-oneyln thebank to boot, rvill fill the heart with joy and willcalm his neryes. That is all he wants. giiss of theAtman, supersensuous bliss, peace and spiritualecstasy are unknown to him. He dislikes it also.He hates people who talk on higher sublimematters.

    ln the presence of sensual pleasures, spiritualbliss cannot exist, just as darkness cannot ixist inthe presence of light. Therefore, show extremec-ontempt towards. all worldly objects. Destroydesire by turning the mincl awiy from the sensualobjects.

    Amidst the din and boisterous bustle ofworldly activities, there come moments oftranquillity and peacewhen the mind for the timebeing, however short it may be, soars above

    *9ll9ty things and reflects on the higher problemsof life, viz., "Whence, where, whither ani why ofthe universe," and ..Who am I?,,. The sincere32


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    enquirer becomes serious and extends hisreflections. He begins to search and understandthe truth. Discrimination dawns on him. He seeksdispassion, concentration, meditation andpurification of body and mind and eventuallyattains the highest knowledge of the Self.

    However, if you have no real sustaineddispassion you will find no improvement orprogress in spirituality. Vows, austerities, energyand meditation will leak out like water from acracked pot.

    The view that everything in the world isunreal causes indifference to the enjoyments ofthis world and the other heaven-world also. Onehas to come down to this world from heaven whenthe fruits of good works are exhausted. The samefive kinds of sensual enjoyments (hearing,touching, seeing, tasting and smelling) prevail even

    in theheaven-world,

    but they are subtleand

    intense. This cannot give true and real satisfactionto a man of discrimination. He shuns allenjoyments of the heaven-world also, and shunsthem ruthlessly. He kicks them mercilessly. He isfully aware that the pleasure of the three worlds is

    a mere drop in the ocean of the bliss of the Self.The body is the source of great miseries. It

    brings disrespect, censure, etc. and is subject todisease, decay and old age. It passes away withoutSADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 33

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    a moment's notice. Give up attachment to thebody. To think that nothing on this earth belongs

    to me, and that this body even is not mine, iswisdom. To think that she is my wife, thatbungalow is mine, and I am rich, etc., isfoolishness of a superior order. This physical bodywhich is fulI of impurities, urine, faecal matter,pus, etc., is perishable. It is the property of fishes,jackals and vultures. It is despised by your enemiesand it remains like a log of wood on the groundwhen Prana leaves the body. How can you call thisyours? Why should you cling to it and worship itwith scents, powders and flowers? Do not be silly

    and foolish in adoring it with fine silks andornaments. Application of oil to the hair, powderto the face, looking at the mirror very often andwearing rings on the fingers will intensifyattachment to the body. Therefore, give up allthese things ruthlessly. Think of the Atman whichis eternal, pure and all-pervading.

    The physical body appears only in the present.A thing that has neither past nor future must beconsidered as non-existent in the present also. Butstill non-existent things can cause pain. This isillustrated by the following story:

    Kamala and Krishna had no children. Theywere building castles in the air one night whenthey were lying on a raised bedstead. Kamala34 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    asked the husQand: "How will you manage for thesleeping place of our son, if I get a child?" Krishnareplied: "I will make room in this very woodenbed itself." He moved some inches away from hiswife. She again asked: "What will you do if I begeta second son?" Krishna answered: "I will againmake room in this bed." He moved actually a few

    inches further to the edge of the bed. Kamalaagain asked: "My dear husband, what will you doif I get a third son?" The husband said: "I will givehim room in this very bed." While he was movingto the very edge of the bed he tumbled down andfractured his left leg. Krishna's neighbour cameand asked: "What is the matter with your leg?"Krishna said: "I broke my leg on account of myfalse son." Such is the case with the people of theworld also. They suffer on account of false egoismand false relationship.

    Vairagya does not mean abandoning socialduties and responsibilities of life. It does not meana life in the solitary caves of the Himalayas, or inthe crematorium. It does not mean living onneem-leaves, cow's urine and does not meanwearing of matted hair and having a Kamandalumade of a gourd or coconut shell in the hand. [tdoes not mean shaving of the head and throwingoff of clothes. Vairagya is mental detachment fromall connections of the world. A man may remain in


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    Wherever a man may go he carries with himhis fickle, restless mind, his subtle desires and

    innate tendencies. Even if he lives in solitude inthe Himalayas he is still the same worldly man ifhe is engaged in building castles in the air and inthinking of the objects of the wor'ld. In that caseeven the cave becomes a big city for him. If themind remains and is free from attachments, onecan be a perfect Vairagi even while living in amansion in the busiest part of a city like Calcutta.Such a mansion will be converted into a denseforest by him.

    To develop inner mental detachment frompleasure and pain even while remaining in theworld, a man should see that he is neither beingcarried away by the pleasant experiences of theworld nor clinging to them. At the same time heshould not be afraid of painful experiences. Heshould simply remain as a silent spectator. If hethus practises for some years, every experience willbe a positive step in his ascent in the spiritualladder. Eventually his efforts will be crowned withsanguine success in mental detachment. He willthen have an unruffled and poised mind. Adispassionate person is the happiest and richestperson in the world. He is also the most powerfulperson. How can Maya tempt him now? Sukaf)eva was tested by Raja Janaka. He remainedSADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    without food at the gate of Raja Janaka's palacefor some days. He was quite peaceful. Then hewas taken to the harem. Beautiful girls served himand gave him delicious food, but he remainedunaffected. This is wisdom.

    You cannot form a correct opinion of anySannyasin or a householder as to the state of hismental condition by a casual talk with him for afew hours, or staying with him for a few days. Youwill have to live with him for a very long time andstudy his internal mental attitude. Generallypeople make serious mistakes. They are deludedby external appearances. They take a physicallynude Sadhu for a great Mahatma in the beginning.Later on they change their impression after closecontact. Physical nudity alone will not constitutereal Vairagya. What is wanted is mental nudity,i.e., complete eradication of subtle desires, egoism,etc. Do not be deceived by external appearances.

    A dispassionate man is a past-master in theart of separating himself from the impermanent,perishable objects. He constantly dwells in theEternal. He identifies himself with the witnessingconsciousness that is present in pleaspre pnd painand stands adamantine as a peak amid a iurbulentstorm, as a spectator of this wonderful world-show.He is not at all affected by these pleasant orpainful experiences, but he learns valuable lessons


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    - _

    from them. In other words, pleasant objects haveno attraction for him and he is not repulsed by

    painful ones. Nor is he afraid ofpain, knowing, as

    he does, that pain helps quite a lot in his progressand evolution, in his journey towards the goal. Hestands convinced that pain is the best teacher inthe world.

    Some Sannyasins practise Vairagya in order toget fame and respect, but God knows the motivesof att as He is the inner Ruler. You cannot deceiveHim.

    Vairagya-egoism is a deadly cancer. It isdifficult to get rid of the Vairagya-egoism as long

    as there is the body-idea. The feeling, 'I am agreal Vairagi or renouncer,' is Vairagya-egoism.Attachment to Vairagya is as much an evil asattachment to sensual objects. This egoism ofSadhus and Sannyasins, is more dangerous andinveterate than the egoism of worldly persons.

    There was once a Sannyasin at Benares. Hecould bear heat and cold. In summer he used tostand in the sun for some hours and in winter heused to stand in the Ganga for some hours. Heslept on a bed of grass and shunned wooden beds.

    On one occasion one of his admirers, Sri Ram,took him to Mussoorie. Sri Ram provided him abed to sleep on. The Sannyasin refused to sleep onthe bed and asked Sri Ram to provide a bed of


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    grass. Sri Ram said: "Swamiji, it is very difficult toget dry grass here. It is raining now in torrents.Kindly use the bed today. This will not bind you inany way. You are an advanced Sannyasin. What isit for you whether the body lies on a bed of grassor on a wooden bed?" The Swami replied: ,,No,no, no. I must have my usual bed of grass only.You must bring it anyhow.', Because of the rain itwas extremely difficult for Sri Ram to get drygrass, but somehow he managed to get it witirgreat difficulry.

    - Some Sannyasins who are working for thepublic good make resolves: ..We will noi travel intrains. We will walk only. We will not take milk,fruits, etc. We will not use fountain pens orwatch." These are not desirable resolves. This isnot the real nature of Vairagya. These Sannyasinsare also attached to their Vairagya. This is anotherkind of defect. They want to do service. ff theymove in cars or trains, if they keep the body strongand healthy, they can do more service in-a shorlspace of time. Those who do much writing workcan turn out more work if they use a fountain pen.Foolishness assumes many forms. This is on. kird.Foolishness does not

    leave even educated personsor cultured Sannyasins.Attachment to Vairagya is as much an evil as

    attachment itself. Vairagya is a means for attaining40 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    wisdom of the Self, it is not the goal itself. AJivanmukta or realised sage has neither Raga(likes) nor Vairagya. If you give him a little drybread alone he is quite satisfied. He will notgrumble. If you give him best sweetmeats, milkand fruits he will not refuse, but he will not beelated by good food. He always takes delight in hisown Self only, not in external objects. This is thetest to find out whether a man has attainedrealisation or not. A worldly man is much troubledwhen he cannot get the right kind of food whichhe likes best. He rejoices when he obtainspalatable dishes. A realised soul has equanimity of

    mind. He is above likes and dislikes.Obviously the Swami who wanted a bed ofgrass at Mussoorie had not attained equanimity ofmind, and Self-realisation. He was attached toVairagya even after several years of spiritualpractice. He was not completely free from all sortsof attachments and had not attained the naturalstate wherein the sage is quite indifferent to allkinds of objects, and would sleep on the bed ofgrass or a beautiful bed with mattress and pillowwith the same feeling.

    T'here was a Swami Krishnananda inGangotri. He was a great Vairagi. For many yearshe lived without clothing in the icy regions andslept on the ice sometimes. Rai Bahadur Modi


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    - __,. r

    gave a very good description of him sleeping onthe ice. He found him to be a wonderful man andmade him his Guru.

    Ordinary aspirants with delicate health shouldnot take recourse to the practice of such drasticausterities. He who has attained perfection of thebody through Yoga can do any kind of Thpasbecause his body is adamantine. If an aspirant withdelicate health gives up food and tries to live onneem leaves alone, the obvious result is that hewill get various sorts of gastro-intestinal diseasesand pass away soon. This is the fruit obtained bypersons who practise foolish austerities.

    LJnnecessary torture of the body in the nameof Thpas is also highly depreciable. This isdemonised austerity of ignorant persons. This iscondemned by Lord Krishna in the BhagavadGita. Body is the moving temple of the Lord, aninstrument for Self-realisation. You cannot do anySadhana if the body is not kept strong and healthy.

    Each one will have to do Sadhana accordingto his constitution and strength. What one doesmay not suit another. If you have mastery over thepairs of opposites, if you can bear intense heat and

    intense cold, if you can remain without clothing inicy Gangotri, this is highly creditable indeed. Butif your frame is delicate and you attempt to standbefore the sun in summer for some hours or throw42 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    physical constitution. If you are weak and cannotsit for a long time in one posture, you can take alittle Chyavanaprash

    (an Ayurveclic tonic) or sonlefruit. You should have extreme Vairagya internallyand at the same time follow the middle pathexternally.

    The caretaker of the horse feeds it withproper nutrition when it is over-worked or when itis ailing; then only is it reacly for further work.This body should be injected with proper nurrition,then only will it turn out good work, then only willit soon regain its lost vitality on account ofover-work or ailment. Work will suffer if the boclyis not

    well attended to. When the body grows oldit must be well protected against cold, andwell-looked after. If hard austerity is practisednow, it will give way soon. Consequently the othershore of immortality and fearlessness cannot bereached.

    God works mysteriously. He takes care of Hjsdevotees by working through the minds of variouspersons. The public will take care of the body of aSannyasin who has dedicated it to the service ofhumanity, because it is public property. He has no

    claim on it because he denies the existence ofbody and tries to feel always: ,I am Siva(Sivoham).' Society and nature will extract anclcontinue to extract as much work as possiblc from


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    I . JII

    dedicated theirhose selfless workers who have dedicated theirlives to the service of humanity. They are yoked toservice till the last breath leaves their bodies. LordVishnu instructed Prahlada, "My dear PrahladaEn

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    talked last night when you were dreaming?" hereplies, "I do not remember anything." Such is thestate of a Jivanmukta, a great renouncer or'enjoyer'. He will not refuse to accept somemangoes or a cup of milk when these comeunasked for, but he will not crave for them. Hewill not say, "[ have enjoyed today good mangoesor good milk." If an aspirant is seriously ailing andnot able to eat solid foodstuffs, if there is a feelingof want in him for milk and he has no money topurchase milk, then if any devotee casually offerssome milk of his own accord he should not refuseit. Durvasa ate a sumptuous meal and yet he said,

    "I do not eat anything. I take grass juice only,"because he identified himself with the Atman whois always the witness and the non-enjoyer. LordKrishna is regarded as an eternal Brahmacharithough he was with Radha, Rukmini andSatyabhama. Sage Tiruvalluvar said to his wife:"My beloved Say unto the river that my husband,an eternal Brahmachari, has commanded you togive path of way. She will at once yield and youcan cross it without a boat." She repeated thewords of her husband and crossed the riverimmediately. She was quite amazed at the wordsof her husband and asked him: "My Lord, you areliving with me and yet you say that you are aneternal Brahmachari. I am struck with wonder. Iam pluzzled. Kindly explain this philosophy.,,46 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    Tiruvalluvar replied: "I am the immortal Atman. Ihave realised this through direct cognition. I donot do anything. I am the silent witness, Thesenses, body, mind and intellect are myinstruments. I am entirely distinct from them."Tiruvalluvar's wife understood the nature of thesoul and then she became silent.

    Some neophytes and raw aspirants pose asgreat renouncers or great 'enjoyers' and quotescriptures also: "We eat without tongues, we seewithout eyes." The thief or the hypocrite will befound out soon. They are just like the people whocatch fishes from the Ganga to satisfy their palatesand quote Bhagavad Gita: "Weapons cleave himnot, nor fire burns him, nor waters wet him, norwind dries him." Sublime philosophy indeed ofperverted people with perverted intellects Giltornaments cannot shine for a long time. The crow

    that struts under borrowed feathers of the peacockwill be found out soon. Their cravings and subtledesires will burst out and any lay bystander candetect the hypocrite without any difficulty.

    Young aspirants should be very careful andcautious. They should not take advantage of thetiberty of a great renouncer or a great 'enjoyer'.This can be practised only by an advanced Yogiwho has got equal vision in all things. Beginnersshould stick to their resolves of truth,SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 47

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    non-violence, celibary and dispassion to the veryletter and spirit.

    Some aspirants S3 , "l have given upumbrella, I take only one meal." Their wholeSadhana is: 'l have given up wearing shirts', 'I havegiven up wearing sweaters', 'I have given upshoes', 'I live only on bread and dhal'. TheirSadhana consists of 'giving up'-giving up this,giving up that. Real spiritual life does not involveany giving up or taking. What is to be renouncedis that which says, "I am superior to that man," ..fam the body" and "I am the doer". There is no usein your renouncing your home, wife and children.Mere outward giving up of things is nothing. It isnot real renunciation. Real renunciation consistsof absolute renunciation of all subtle desires anddestruction of ignorance. [f you are very hungry inthe morning, take one or tw

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    of starvation. There is depression in trade andunrest everywhere. There is wholesale devastation

    by flo

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    immortality if you do not spend even half an hourin the service of God, in singing His Name and in

    divine contemplation?You can obliterate your Samskaras by right

    exertion. You are not a creature of circumstances.You are the master of your destiny. Try tounderstand the riddle of life and the riddle of theuniverse.

    Acquire discrimination, have Satsanga,enquire into the nature of the Atman, study..yogaVasishtha" and the Upanishads. Study again andagain "Vairagya Maala", "How to Get yairagya,'and "Necessity for Sannyasa".

    Then you will havea comprehensive understanding of the problems oflife. You will develop gradually Vairagya.

    Without Yairagya not even an iota of spiritualprogress is possible. If there is no Vairagya, energywill leak out from various holes

    ofthis body.

    There will be no ascent in the ladder of yoga,despite your Sadhana. Vairarya is the foremost ofall divine virtues. It is the only Sadhana to takeyou up to the peak of eternal wisdom orNirvikalpa Sarnadhi. Cultivate this to a maximumdegr6e. Be ever vigilant. Do not slacken yourself,falsely thinking that you have attained Jivanmukti.You will have hopeless downfall. You will not beable to rise up again. Bervare. Beware. Beware.


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    Shad Sampat

    Having considered Vairagya, the second of theSadhana Chatushtaya, you now come to the thirdqualification which is really a set of six distinctattributes that the aspirant has to acquire. Theseare: Sama, Dama, Uparati, Titiksha, Sraddha andSamadhana. The six attributes are taken as onebecause they are all calculated to bring aboutmental control and discipline. Concentration andmeditation can never be possible without mentalcontrol and mental discipline. These practices are,in fact, practices in Raja Yoga.

    There is a beautiful and a definitely rationalsig4ificance in the sequence in the fourfoldequipment on'the spiritual path. It is only whendiicrimination dawns that the first glimmer ofawakening comes into your life. Devoid ofdiscrimination man lives only a brutish life in arefined sort of way. He has not known the truemeaning of human life and has therefore notawakened to the real purpose of his existence.Discrimination imparts the first impulse ofawakening to the soul. It opens your eyes to thetrue nature of the things of this transitory world.Then Vairagya dawns. You are prompted to runaway from the fleeting perishable objects andconceive a dislike for the sensual pleasure-centres.The mind gropes, seeks and thirsts for something


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    beyond passing appearances now. With this newstate of disgust and dispassion the old selfsimultaneously exists with all its wontedweaknesses, its senseward urges and its habitualtendencies to succumb to every gust of passionand temptation from the objective world. It marksa period of transition, a period full of slips andretreats and the pain and grievous vexationsresulting from them. The discrimination needs tobe steadied and the dispassion to be strengthened.They have to be made firm and resiitant towithstand the assaults and attacks of powerfulsubtle desires and innate tendencies. They have to

    stand four-square against the temptations andtrials that will assail the seeker. Inner force is tobe generated. The personality is to be .toughened,.

    Shad Sampat generates this force within theseeker. These sixfold attributes help to cast him in

    the heroic mould. They impart itr.ngih ; il;disposition of the seeking soul, bringing balanceand imparting equipoise to the personality. Theycheck the restive senses, develop the power oiendurance-both physical and mental-and givethe power to arrest the outgoing mode of themind-function. Then the seeker becomesestablished and firm-rooted in strong faith andthus grows into a state of absolutesingle-mindedness and one-pointedness in the52 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    adherence to and the contemplation of his idealand goal. By all these means the Shad Sampat

    makes one strong and well-grounded in Vivekaand Vairagya which have now been madeunassailable by means of these Yogic attributes. Insuch a seeker the fire of keen aspiration'blazesforth with intensity.

    Sama: Sama is serenity or tranquillity of mindthat is brought about by eradication of subtledesires. Serenity is the state or quality of beingserene. It is calmness or coolness of mind, orpeace. It is evenness of temper and undisturbedstate of mind. A serene mind is unclouded orunruffled. In a serene mind alone the divine lightdescends. Serenity comes when you annihilate alldesires and cravings. Desires and cravings producerestlessness. If you are serene, it is the greatestmanifestation of power and strength. When one isserene, the mind is kept in the chambers of theheart and is not allowed to join with the sensesand to move outside into sensual objects. Themind is fixed in the source. Serenity of mind is themost important qualification for an aspirant. Thisis difficult of attainment, but the aspirant must

    have this qualification at any cost. [t demandsincessant and protracted practice.The mind is the commander of the five

    organs of perception and the five organs of action.


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    If the commander is subjugated first of all, thesoldiers (the sense-organs) are already conquered.

    Control of the sense-organs cannot becomeperfect unless their head-the mind-is controlledfirst. If one is established in Sama, Dama (controlof the sense-organs) comes by itself.

    Do not hurry, do not worry. Do not fret andfume. Regret not. Control irritability, control yourtemper and be contented. You will have a serenemind. Practise daily prayer, Japa and meditation.Serenity does not come in a day, or week. You willhave to struggle hard for a long time in cultivatingthis fundamental divine virtue. Be serene.Meditate and know that you are the all-pervadingimmortal Atman.

    Dama: Dama is control of the Indriyas(sense-organs). This is rational control, notblunting or deadening of the sense by foolishausterities. This body is the moving temple ofGod. It should be kept healthy and strong. It is avessel to take you to the other shore offearlessness and immortality; it is a horse to takeyou to the goal. Ignorant people adopt foolishmethods to control the senses. For instance, some

    aspirants amputate the organ of reproduction.They think that lust can be eradicated completelyby such a procedure. What a great foolish actLust is in the mind. If the mind is subdued, what54 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    can this external fleshy organ do? Some swallowtons of nux vomica to kill this organ. They fail in

    their Brahmacharya. The state of their minds isthe same, though the nur vomica makes themimpotent.

    Remember, it is only the abuse or misuse ofthe organs that brings misery and untoward results.

    The senses should be consecratedat the lotus-feet

    of the Lord for His services. They should beutilised in serving one's Guru and otherMahatmas. The ears should be used for hearingthe scriptures and the tongue should repeat theGuru-stotras. This is the right use of the senses' In

    the peace Mantras of the Upanishads it is said:"May my limbs, Prana, eye, ear and all my sensesgrow vigorous. O gods, may we with our ears hearwhat is auspicious. O ye fit to be worshipped, maywe with our eyes see what is auspicious. May weenjoy the life allotted to us by the gods, offeringour praise with our bodies strong of limb " Thereis no mentioning here of weakening the body,killing the senses or tormenting the body and thesenses in a variety of ways

    What is wanted is judicious control. Thesenses should not be allowed to run riot intosensual grooves, nor throw us ruthlessly into thedeep pit of worldliness, just as the turbulent horsecarries away the rider wherever it likes. If theSADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 55

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    senses are disciplined properly and if they are keptunder control, they become your useful servants.

    "He who has no discrimination and whose mind isalways uncontrolled, his senses are uncontrollablelike the vicious horses of a driver; bur he who hasunderstanding and whose mind is alwayscontrolled, his senses are under control like thegood horses of


    He who has nodiscrimination, whose mind is not under controland who is always impure, does not reach the goalbut enters into the round of births and deaths; buthe who has understanding, who has his mindalways under control and who is pure, reaches thatgoal whence he is not born again. He who hasunderstanding as the charioteer and who holds thereins of the mind, reaches the end of his journey,and that is the highest place of Vishnu.,, (KathaUpanishad.) Observance of Mauna for two hoursdaily, dietetic adjustment and continence

    ormoderation are all of great help.People ask: "Where is the necessity for the

    practice of Dama, when one practises Sama?,,Dama, control of the senses, is also necessary.Then only will one get supreme control of mind.Though the senses cannot independently do anyhavoc when the mind is under control, yet theiicontrol ensures perfect safety and supreme peaceof mind. When one's inclinations and emotions,56 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    desires and appetites, senses and mind are undercontrol, it is called self-control. Control yourselffirst, then you can control others' Self-controlclears the mind, strengthens judgment and elevatesyour character. It gives you freedom, peace, blissand joy and strengthens your will. He whoconquers himself is greater than theCommander-in-chief rvho conquers a country.Self-control is the master-key that opens the realmof eternal bliss and immortality. Throughself-control you will be purified of all of your sinsand gifted with energy and character. You willacquire the highest blessedness.

    There is no triumph more glorious than thatof the victory obtained over your own self. Till youhave done this, you will only be a slave of thesenses. He who is subject to his passions is theworst slave on the surface of this earth; he whorules his passions, desires, cravings and senses isthe real King of kings.

    Every temptation that is resisted, every evilthought that is subdued, every desire or cravingthat is destroyed, every bitter word that is withheldand every wrong action that is checked, paves the

    way to the attainment of everlasting peace andbliss.There is no other duty equal to self-control' It

    is the highest virtue in the -world. ThroughSADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 57

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    self-control you can enjoy the highest happinessboth in this world and in rhe next. Gifted withself-control you will win great virtue.

    The self-controlled man sleeps happily andawakes happily and moves in the world-hippily.He is always cheerful. The man who is wiifroutself-control always suffers misery. He. brings uponhimself many

    calamities, all begotten by [is ownfaults.. Fg.gj"eness, patience, abstention from injury,impartiality, truth, sincerity, control of the ,""r"r,cleverness, mildness, modesty, firmness, liberality,freedom from anger, contentment, sweetness ofwords, benevolence, freedom from malice, mercyand respect for the preceptor all combined makeup self-control.

    The man of self-control avoids both adulationand slander. Depravity, infamy, falsehood, lust,covetousness, pride, arrogance, fear, envy anddisrespect are all shunned by him. He never incursobloquy. He is free from envy.

    That eternal region in Brahman whichoriginates from Vedic penances and which isconcealed in a cave can only be acquired byself-control. The self-controlled rnan is ,r"u".fettered by the attachments originating fromearthly connections and sentiments. The man ofself-control acquires great reward in the next


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    engage himself in constant reflection on the Self.When one perceives the worthlessness of all lowerthings and is convinced of the true worth of ahigher thing, then one turns away from the formerand gets absorbed in the latter. The seeker isunaffected amidst distractions of diverse objects.He is centered within. This state of mind isUparati.

    The mind of the student who is established inUparati will never be agitated when he sees abeautiful object. There will be no attraction. Hewill have the same feeling when he sees a womanas when he looks at a tree or a log of wood. Whenhe looks at delicious fruits or palatable dishes hewill tempted. He will have no craving forany particular object or dish and will never ,r], ,,Iwant such and such food.,, He will be satisfied withanything that is placed before him. This is due to

    the strength of mind he has developed by thepractice of Viveka, Vairagya, Sama and Dama.Further, the mind experiences a wonderfulcalmness and transcendental spiritual bliss by theabove practices. It does not want these littleillusory pleasures. If you have got sugar-candy,your mind will never run after black sugar. Vo,can wean the mind from the object to which it isattached by training it to taste a superior kind ofbliss. If you give cotton-seed extract to a bull or a60 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    cow, it will not run towards dry grass or hay. Mindis like the bull.

    Those who practise celibary must be fullyconversant with the technique of Sama, Dama andUparati. Then only they will be established in itspractice.

    Titilrsha: Titiksha or endurance comes next. It

    is the state of enduring or bearing. It is thecapacity or power to endure without opposition,and to suffer pain, distress, hardship or any veryprolonged stress without succumbing,-murmuring,complaining, lamenting or repining. It is patientfortitude. It is the ability to bear and continue inspite of destructive forces.

    He who endures conquers. Throughendurance, will-power and patience are developed.Through endurance, evils and difficulties areovercome. Your strength often increases inproportion to the obstacles imposed upon you.Endure t[em bravely. Difficulties and troubles,adversities and calamities' have often built thecharacter of men. The palm-tree grows bestbeneath a ponderous weight, and even so thecharacter of man. The greater the difficulty, themore glory in surmounting it. Through enduranceyou exhibit your divine grandeur and makealliance with God. Titiksha is a condition ofwisdom. It is a means for acquiring knowledge.SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 61

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    Though Titiksha develops your will-power andbrings happiness herein and hereatter, it has onedetect. People misconstrue those who practiseforbearance for impotent, effeminate men"

    Power of endurance is a virtue to bepossessed by a Yogi, a Jnani and a Bhakta. Manyhardships and privations have to be faced by the

    students in the successful performance of Yoga.The weak man emerges as a strong and sublimeman from terrible trials and adversities. Tiial is acrucible into which nature throws a man whenevershe wishes to mould him into a superman.Therefore do not be afraid of troubles andadversities. They are blessings in disguise. Theaspirant should patiently bear the pairs ofopposites such as heat and cold, pleasure and painand the rest. Sri Sankara defines Titiksha inVivekachudamani as follows: "The bearing of allafflictions without caring to redress them, beingfree at the same time from aDdety or lament ontheir score, is called Titiksha, forbearance.,,According to Atma Anatma Mveka, Titiksha is theshowing of forbearance to a person to whom youare capable of awarding punishment for somewrong-doing.

    Lord Krishna advises Arjuna to bear heat andcold: "The contacts of the senses with the objects,O son of Kunti, which cause heat and cold,62 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    pleasure and pain, have a beginning and an end;they are impermanent; endure them bravely, O

    Arjuna. That firm man whom, surely, these afflictnot, O chief among men, to whom pleasure andpain are the same, is fit for attaining Immortality."Bhagavad Gita (II-14, 15)

    A little practice will serve the purpose. One

    should be able to walkbare-footed without an

    umbrella, to sleep on the bare ground without anypillow. Those who wish to take the path ofrenunciation should practise these while they arein the world. Occasionally walk bare-footed in thecompound of your house. Tiain the body forphysical labour. You should not be entirelydependent upon the servants. Wash all yourclothes and understand the dignity of labour. Thkemedicine only when there is absolute necessity.Gradually develop your power of endurance.Increase it by all means, bearing heat, cold, pain,hunger, etc.

    Some saints make Titiksha the goal of life.Till the end of life they stand on one leg in coldwater in winter and in the hot sun in summer.Some remain naked in winter, some stand on oneleg raising their hands above,xome stand in waterwaist-deep and do Japa, some stand in the hot sun,some hang from a tree head downwards with a firelighted below, while some sleep and sit on a bed


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    of nails. These are all pracrices in Titiksha. Theydevelop will-power, but such endurance by itselfmay not be able to secure the highest human end.

    Rtolish austerities of a rigorous kind arecondemned by Lord Krishna in the BhagavadGita. "The man who performs severe austeritiesunenjoined by the scriptures, wedded to vanity andegoism, impelled

    by the force of their desires andpassions; unintelligent, tormenting the aggregatedelements forming the body and Me also, firm intheir resolves..."

    Some ignorant people think: "If there are nodiseases in this world, if there is no burning heatin sumrner, if it is always winter, if there is no painin the world, if this world is free from tigers,cobras, scorpions, centipedes, flies, mosquitoes,bugs, etc., it will be a veritable heaven on earth.,,A wise man never grumbles. He tries to fix himself

    up in thatunchanging,

    permanent, witnessingconsciousness which is hidden in his heart andwhich is beyond all the pairs of opposites, andthen watches the movements and the phenomenaof this universe with an unruffled mind. Everythingappears as the Lila of Brahman. He seesintelligence in every inch of creation. He has avery comprehensive understanding of the eternallaws of nature and the pairs of opposites. He nowunderstands the reason for the existence of pain,


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    snakes, scorpions, tigers, etc. This is true ofTitiksha based on knowledge. The practitioner canendure any kind of difficulty or catastrophe and isnot shaken even by shocking news of heavysorrow. He is superior to those who have trainedthemselves by physical torture, because the latterwill show signs of failure when confronted byserious disasters.

    Study the psychology of men. Analyse humannature. When you move with others, adjustyourself well. Have perfect adaptability, developtolerance. Then only will you be happy. Be calm,serene and poised always. Practise this, Never getimpatient, excited or neryous, be composed andunruffled. When you are calm and tranquil, youcan get help and strength from within and you canhear the still inner voice. The divine energy willflow into you.

    Wherever you go you carry your own mind.subtle desires and innate tendencies with you.Attraction and repulsion are everywhere, even inthe caves of the Himalayas. Create your own worldand environments from within, then alone can yoube happy anywhere and under any circumstances.

    The best of all virtues is even-mindedness.Therefore, develop this virtue with patience andperseverance. Other virtues will cling to you bythemselves. Bear difficulties patiently. Adjust the


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    mind to all circumstances and places; then onlycan you be really strong. That Yoga student who

    tries to evolve amidst trying conditions,temptations and unfavourable circumstances willbecome very powerful. Mother Nature knows fullywell how to train and mould her children.Therefore, don't murmur, don't grumble. Keepyour mind

    cool at all times, under all conditions.If you are impartial; if you are master of yoursenses; if your mind is unruffled in the midst ofunending troubles, difficulties, sickness andfestivities and if you neither desire nor renounceany object, you are in possession of tranquillity.Truth will dawn by itself in the tranquil mind only.Therefore, cultivate this virtue by all means.

    Failure is only the stepping stone to success.Do not be discouraged by failure. Gird up theloins, stand up, be bold. Face difficulties andovercome them one by one. Do not becomedespondent on any account. Walk like a spirituallion. Be not afraid of public criticism. People arestill abusing Lord Mahadeva, Sri Sankara, LordKrishna and Lord Rama. They will continue to doso from

    eternity to eternity. The world aboundswith Thmasic people. Sattvic people are very rare.Discipline your mind. Stand adamantine under allconditions and at all times. Keep a cool balancedmind. This is the highest wisdom.


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    To an aspirant who wrote of difficulties in hiswork I replied: "Are you the Atman or mind orbody? Even though you have read my writingshundreds of times, you identify yourself with mindand body and lose the balance of mind when atrifling criticism is made, so strong is your egoism.People can criticise your body and mind. You

    yourself dislike your body and mind. Those whocriticise your body and mind become your friends.Then why do you get agitated, my dear friend?You are still weak. You have not grown spiritually.Ignore criticism. Why do you brood over pastevents? This is a very bad habit. You can't havepeace of mind. Rise above criticisms and pettyremarks and stand firm like the rock. Do good tothose men who attempt to poison or hurt you. Putthis in practice.

    "You should try to love all, even your worstenemy who wants to destroy you, who is planningto poison you, who is drawing the sword to chopoff your head. This is of course difficult, but youwill have to practise this if you really want spiritualgrowth and salvation. This is real Sannyasa. A realSannyasi is one who feels that he has no body. Youshould live, work and meditate amidst people whoare aiming at your destruction and amidst theworst of unfavourable surroundings. Then only canyou grow spiritually. Then only you can have the


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    unruffled mind of a sage. This method is doubtlessdifficult, but it will make one really adamantine.

    "It is a great loss for you to leave the publicservice because some jealous persons attempted tovilify and injure you, and when you will liave toface various sorts of bitter experiences. yourspiritual growth will be terribly retarded. you musthave moral strength and

    moral courage to facepublic criticism, harsh remarks and persecution.Your suffering is nothing when compued with thepersecutions undergone by Sri Rama and the fivePandavas. Show your manliness, moral courageand spiritual strength now. The inner strength thityou obtained by meditation during these sfu yearsis tested now. Had you really done sinceremeditation you ought to have &uudant strengthnow to face these difficulties with a smile. If youhave no strength, it shows that there has blensome error in meditation. Real meditation givesimmense inner strength.

    "Do not be afraid of insult, disrespect,dishonour, abuse, or harsh words. Wear them asornaments on your body.

    _ "Many worry themselves a lot if they hear alittle scandal about,themselves. Don,t UL atraiqthese are vain sounds, vibrations in the air. Theseare nothing. What is mocking? What is scandal?Analyse these. They will dwindle into airy nothing.68 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    Allow scandals to enter through one ear and passout immediately through the other ear. You are

    the immortal Atman where there is no sound.Nothing can affect you. You are invulnerable."

    Sraddha: Next comes Sraddha. This is intensefaith in the words of the Guru and in the sayingsof the Vedanta scriptures and above all in one's

    own self.Faith is belief in the truth of revealed

    religion. It is confidence and trust in God and inone's own self. It is belief in the statements,utterancef, and teachings 0f one's Guru, preceptor

    or saints. It is belief in religious scriptures. It isnot blind faith but faith based on accuratereasoning, evidence and experience. Then only canit be a lasting unshakable faith. Faith is a firmconviction of the truth of what is declared byanother by way either of testimony or authoritywithout any other evidence.

    ' Any clear conception of subtle ultimate truthsis almost impossible without proper faith. Whenthere is faith, the mind can be easily concentratedon the subject to be understood and then theunderstanding quickly follows. Faith is thatpersonal attitude by which divine revelation issubjectively appropriated. Faith transcends reason.It does not originate from logical processes, butSADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 69

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    from an immediate inner experience. No spiritualprogress is possible without faith.

    We give credence to a report and assent to aproposition or to a proposal. Belief is strongerthan credence. Conviction is a belief establishedby argument or evidence. Assurance is beliefbeyond the reach of argument. Faith is a union ofbelief and trust. Faith is chiefly personal, whereasbelief may be quite impersonal. We speak of beliefin a proposition and faith in a promise, becausethe promise emanates from a person. Confidenceis a firm dependence upon a statement as true, orupon a person as worthy. We have reliance uponthe uniformity of nature. We have trust or faith inGod. Faith should not be forced. Tryrng to compelreligious belief leads to unbelief.

    Faith in God elevates the soul, purifies theheart and emotions and leads to God-realisation.Faith is the soul of religion. It creates new hopesand awakens immortality. It is the eye that seesthe Lord, and the hand that clings to Him. Faith ispower, strength and abundant energy. Men withno assets but tremendous faith in themselves haveaccomplished wonders. He who has faith is strong,he who doubts is weak. Strong

    faith precedes greatactions, while doubt cramps energy.Much divine knowledge is lost to you through

    lack of faith. Faith illumines the spiritual path,70 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    builds a bridge across the gulf of death and takesthe aspirant to the other shore of fearlessness and

    immortality.Faith in God is the first rung in the ladder of

    spirituatity. It inspires hope in the seeker of Truthto attain divine grace. You need neither art norscience for attaining God-realisation, but faith,purity and devotion. Have a definite purpose. Bedetermined. Be sincere. Be serious. Understandclearly and definitely what you are really aspiringfor.

    Only with faith will the strong yearning forattaining the Divinity dawn in your heart.Understand clearly the nature and glory of theLord, nature of the divine life and God-realisation.Seek the company of the wise. Lead a life ofselfless service, renunciation, dispassion, prayerand meditation. Only then will you be able to doself-surrender. Without faith, an intense desire forDarshan 0f the Lord and self-surrender youcannot attain God-realisation. Therefore strive topossess these things. Strengthen your faith throughSatsanga or association with the wise and the studyof sacred scriptures.

    The Lord is everywhere. Feel His presenceeverywhere. His eyes behold everything, His handsprotect all. Have perfect faith in Him. Surrenderyour entire being unto Him. He will take care of


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    you. Tlust in Him. Thke refuge in His sweet Name.You need not despair nor be afraid of anything.You will ever remain at ease.

    Faith is power. Faith is strength. Faith isabundant energy. Faith is the soul of religion. Itcreates new hopes and awakens immortality.

    Brahman is to be learnt through the Srutis,and- . independent thinking and reasoning havenothing to do with it. Srutis are revelationi. Theyare the direct superintuitive experiences of Rishis.Sages and Srutis give an accurate knowledge ofBrahman. Brahman is beyond the reach of thesenses, is beyond the reach of the mind andspeech. Some learned fools, big wise fools whopose to possess reason, whereas, .they reallymistake their fancies and preferences foi ."uror1declare that they will accept that portion of theSrutis which appeals to reason. Th.f wiil never getout of

    this Samsara Chakra.Tho rgh any subject has been established bymeans of arguments and valid authorities, stiilpeople's minds being entirely taken up with grossexternal objects, any clear conception of subtleultimate truths is almost impossible withoutproper faith. When there is faith, the mind can beeasily concentrated on the subject to beunderstood and then the understanding quicklyfollows.


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    attachment. He neither likes nor dislikes. He hasgreat deal of strength of mind and internal peace.He has unruffled, supreme peace of mind.

    Some aspirants have peace of mind when theylive in seclusion, when there are no distractingelements or factors. They complain of greattossing of mind when they come to a city, whenthey mix with people. They are completely upset.They cannot do any meditation in a crowdedplace. This is a weakness. It is not achievement ofSamadhana. There is no balance of mind orequanimity in these persons. Only when a studentcan keep his balance of mind in a battlefield whenthere is shower of bullets all round-as he does ina solitary cave in the Himalayas-can he be reallysaid to be fully established in Samadhana.Napoleon had Samadhana to some extent,although this is not of the aspirant type. He couldkeep perfect balance

    of mind even amidst the dinand tumult of a raging warfare.Lord Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita:

    "Perform all actions, O Dhananjaya, dwelling inunion with the divine, renouncing attachments,and balanced evenly in success and failure. ,, Thisis Samadhana. Again you will find in the BhagavadGita: "The disciplined pelf, moving among thesense objects with senses free from attraction andrepulsion, mastered by the Self, goes to peace.,'74 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    This is also Samadhana. A seeker possessing thisinvaluable quality of Samadhana is unperturbedamidst the pairs of opposites like pleasure andpain, joy and sorrow, gain and loss, praise andblame, honour and insult, success and failure,fulfilment or disappointment. [t is a settled state ofcool serenity in which the mind does not set upany reaction to the impacts of external contactsand the variegated experiences of earthly life. Thisserenity of disposition deriving from innercomposure based upon discrimination anddispassion is verily the essential factor of Yoga. Itis a distinctive feature of the man of spiritual

    attunement. To the seeker it is indispensable. In itsultimate reaches it is itself Yoga. It is one of thesure tests of inner progress and development.


    Lastly, we come to the fourth of the mainqualifications, Mumukshutva. Mumukshutva isaspiration or burning desire to attainGod-realisation or Self-realisation. God is the onetrue aim of all human aspirations. Aspiration isearnest longing or an earnest wish for that which isabove one's present reach or attainment, especiallyfor what is noble, pure and spiritual. To aspire isto rise or reach upward. To aspire is to have anearnest desire, wish or longing for something highand good not yet attained, and is usuallySADHANA CHATUSHTAYA 75

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    accompanied by endeavour to attain it.Mumukshutva is intense desire for liberation ordeliverance from the wheel of birth and death withits concomitant evils of old age, disease, delusionand sorrow. If one is equipped with the previousthree qualifications-Viveka, Vairagyu urd Sh.dSampat-Mumukshutva will come by itself. Themind moves towards the source

    of its own accord,because it has lost its hold on external objects. Ithas no resting place in this objective universe.Purification of the mind and mental discipline isthe rock-bottom foundation of yoga. When this iseffected, the longing for liberation dawns by itselt.

    Mumulshutva must be of a burning type. Ifburning Mumukshutva is coupled with UurningVairagy4 Self-realisation will

    -come within th;

    twinkling of an eye. Generally the vast majority ofpeople have got a dull type of Vairagya andMumukshutv4

    so they do not succeed ln theirattempts. If one finds that he has not got burningMumukshutva he must practise the other threiSadhanas vigorously till he acquires intenselonging for attaining salvation or immortality. Tocite an analogy: suppose some dust falls in bne,selef, he will hurry up to wash his eyes and get ridof the dust. He will feel great unrest till the dust isremoved, forgetting everything of this world. Hissole concern will be the removal of the dust from76 SADHANA CHATUSHTAYA

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    his eyes. Similarly should one's aspiration be toattain God-realisation. He should forgeteverything else. He should feel extremely restlessand should pine for God-realisation. Another.analogy for Mumulshutva is that of the man underwater. Suppose you keep the head of a personimmersed in water. He will be $ruggling forbreath. Ite will intensely desire to get out of thewater, so that he can breathe. Such intense desiiefor God-realisation is called Mumukshutva.

    The aspirant should practise all the fourmeans to a ma:rimum degree. Proficiency in oneSadhana alone will not make you perfect. Thataspirant who is endowed with these fourqualifications should hear the scriptures from aGuru who is a knower of Brahman and thenreflect and meditate on the inner Self. He willsoon get Self-realisation.

    There is a definite significance in thesequence of the four means. If you have VivekqVairagya will come by itself. If you possess Vivekaand Vairagya, Sama will dawn by itself. If you areendowed with Viveka, Vairagya and Sam4 Damawill come by itself. If you have Sama and Dam4Uparati will come by itself. If you have all thesequalifications, Titiksha, Sraddha and Samadhatrawill come by themselves. If you possess Viveka,Vairagya, Sama, Dama, (Jparati, Sraddha, Titiksha


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    and Samadhana, Mumukshutva or burning desirefor liberation will manifest by itself.

    Some students ask: "Shall we practise Viveka,Vairagya, etc., in order, one by one, aftermastering each limb, or shall we practise all thelimbs simultaneously? If we practise one by one,perhaps we will not be able to get mastery over

    even one or two limbs in this life. We