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QUALITY BY DESIGN Quality Function Deployment Product Development Dr A. Riza Wahono : “ Qualitas krn Desain ” modul 5 1

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Dr A. Riza Wahono :. Product Development. “ Qualitas krn Desain ”. modul 5. 1. QUALITY BY DESIGN Quality Function Deployment. Dr A. Riza Wahono :. Product Development. “ Qualitas krn Desain ”. modul 5. 2. TOTAL QUALITY. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



    Quality Function Deployment

  • TOTAL QUALITYQualitas adalah segala keseluruhan karakteristik dari sebuah entiti yang berdasarkan pada kemampuan barang/produk tersebut untuk memenuhi kebutuhan baik yang tersirat maupun yang tidak. (ISO/DIS 8402-1991 )

    Bergantung pada kedalaman dari lingkup aplikasinya, ISO telah menggariskan tiga standar dimana qualitas dapat dipenuhi, yaitu :

    ISO 9001 : Quality system, Model for quality assurance in design/development, production, installation ad servicingISO 9002: Quality system model for quality assurance for production, and installationISO 9003: Quality system model of quality assurance in final inspection and tests.

  • TOTAL QUALITYQUALITY ENGINEERINGOFF-LINE QUALITY CONTROLEngineering Optimisation using statistical methodsProduct Design(Product Optimisation)Process Design(Process Optimisation)

    System Design InnovationParameter Design OptimisationTolerance Design OptimisationON-LINE QUALITY CONTROLProcess control

  • TOTAL QUALITYON-LINE QUALITY CONTROLRefers to activities that monitor quality characteristic during or after production and define the statistical rules for determining whether actions should be taken to correct changes in he underlying processPROCESS CONTROL

  • TOTAL QUALITYOFF-LINE QUALITY CONTROLRefers to activities that occur during product and process design stage.

    Quality by design means that a structured off-line methods are used to determine the design configuration that meet customers need and are robustEngineering Optimisation Using Statistical Methods

  • TOTAL QUALITYOFF-LINE QUALITY CONTROLROBUST : product performance characteristic are insensitive to variation in manufacturing and operating environments.Robustness by design reduces the need of the company to rely on extensive monitoring and controls

  • TOTAL QUALITYOFF-LINE QUALITY CONTROLQuality Function DeploymentTAGUCHI MethodA structured process for taking the needs and desires of the customers and translating them into technical engineering requirementsIncorporates variability measures and technical requirement generated from customers input into the evaluation of alternative product designCreate robust design

  • SYSTEM DESIGN INNOVATION QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTQuality Function Deployment (QFD) is a systematic approach for the design of new product or services based on close awareness of customer desires coupled with integration of corporate functional groups

    This approach is a set of planning and communication techniques that focus and coordinate organisational capabilities in order to develop products that most closely meet customers actual needs

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT QFD can be seen in two lights :

    1. As a comprehensive organisational mechanism for planning and control new product development

    2. As localised techniques to translate the requirement of one functional group into the supporting requirement of a downstream functional group.

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTQFD requires multifunctional team of expert to participate simultaneously in a complex analytic exercise, bringing diverse perspective to bear on key issues of design

    In localised usage, QFD serves both technical and organisational function


    1. Increased awareness of customers desires, improved product with focus on actual customer wants, improved product specification setting and in general more succesful and effective product


    2. Synergistic gain resulting from integration of and increased effective communication between individuals from different groups. Such gains include understanding of each other functional constraints and capabilities and transfer of information earlier


    3.Effective definition and prioritisation of new product development activities leading to increased understanding of trade-offs, clear understanding of product objectives and customer needs, improves decision making, a better end product and reduced development time

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTQuality Function Deployment (QFD) is a set of planning and communication routines that focuses and coordinates skills within an organisational first to design, then to manufacture and market goods that customers want to purchase and will continue to purchase [Hauser&Clausing]

    It aims at stimulating and structuring this multidisiplinary communication.

    QFD supports a project team in identifying the needs of the custumer and interpreting them in term of technical parameters and target values


  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTPRODUCT ATTRIBUTESProduct attributes reflecting the wishes of the customer. The attributes should be based on the voice of the customers.

    To obtain such collection of product attributes, creativity techniques can be used as well as data obtained from through market and consumer research, document of complaints and repairs, trend analysis and earlier QFD analyses.

    In applying QFDfor the first time, it is adviseable to divide the step into 4 steps i.e Generate, Select, Classify, and structure

    The last part, the relative importance of product attributes is compared and weighted


    Need analysis is concerned with establishing the true needs of the customer the voice of the customer- (VOC). This can be obtained by extensive examination of the views and reports of representative bodies, market data publications (buying habits), reports giving official opinions and reactions to products in use and also by structured interviews or customer questionnaires. The establishment of customer need is important. Ideally, needs analysis should be approached by structuring interview schedules or questionnaires around the element of the PDS.


    The PDS primary elements should form the triggers for asking the right questions of customers and so structured the analysis will naturally from the basis for the PDS itselfThis is to be preferred to random approaches to ascertain customer needs, which tend to leave fundamental gaps in the information gathered. This happens particularly if the questions themselves are derived and driven from consideration of existing products and customers views of those products rather than from fundamental needs issues.

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTPRODUCT EVALUATIONThis step, assumes that the organisation involved has a comparable product on the market for the specific target group.

    Performance of the current product is submitted to an evaluation, by competitive bench-marking. The earlier obtained product attributes are used as evaluation criteria.

    For each evaluation criterion it is accertained whether the product is better, similar or worse that the competitive products all this seen from the customers prespective.

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTPROJECT OBJECTIVES The evaluation provides an insight into the problems regarding the function of the current product.

    Combining these performance data with relative importance of the product attributes is useful in assessing the opportunities for improvement of the product and in determining the project objectives.

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTENGINEERING CHARACTERISTIC In this step, the new product is described in terms of engineering characteristic.

    These characteristic here called Technical Parameters and the measurement of units can be based on the specifications of the forerunners of the product or can be derived by operationalisation of the product attributes

    Measureability of the parameters is seen as very important.

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTMATRIX INTERACTIONThe project objectives from steps 3 are subsequently translated into priorities for the technical parameters.

    This steps form the core of the QFD method as the technical parameters can be linked to various product attributes, in a matrix the product attributes (what) are set off against the technical parameter (how) Subsequently, it is determined for each cell of the matrix whether there is a relationship or not, and if so , what is the strength of this relationship.The completed matrix provides the operationalisation of the product attributes, and is tool for determining the priority of the technical parameters

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTINTERACTION BETWEEN PARAMETERSChanging parameters can influence one or more other parameters.

    It is important to make the nature and strength of these interaction explicit before generating solution to improve one or more specific parameters of the product.

    In a second matrix, the so called the roof of the House of Quality the interaction between the parameters can be laid down.

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTTECHNICAL ANALYSIS AND TARGET VALUESThe current product and competitive products are being analysed to established the parameter values of various products.

    This comparison provides an insight into the possibility for improvement of the product and can help to set target values to be pursued.

    The inventory of possible improvement also provides a test for consistency of interaction matrix and the project objectives as it must be possible to align the results of the technical analysis through the interaction matrix with the results of product evaluation

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTFEASIBILITYIn general, one will seek improvement of those parameters for which the competitive products score better than the own product.

    The feasibility, however, of an improvement depends on the knowledge and skills of the people in the organisation, the available development capacity and the available production process.Therefore it is useful to estimate the degree of complexity or the costs of an improvement

    Finally, based on the priorities, feasibility and the mutual relationship between parameters, it has to be decided on which parameter and target values in the product development project will focus

  • QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENTDEVELOPMENT PLAN The final results of QFD method is a development plan for the product involved.

    This plan lays down the target values(requirement) for technical parameters and is tailored to the development capacity available for the project.

    Parameter which because of feasibility do not yet qualify for improvement can give direction to R&D activities in the long term


    The case is based on fictional problem : the improvement of an attache case,

    The example served as an illustration only, not every steps is worked in detail


    The case is based on fictional problem : the improvement of an attache case,

    The example served as an illustration only, not every steps is worked in detail


    Determine what the customer considers important in a case

    By Mean-end analysis attributes can be refined

    Weighing factors shows the relative importance of product

  • CASE 1. CUSTOMER VOICE :Product AttributesImportance- Easy to carry2- Easy to open4- Easy to find contents4- Adjustable capacity1- Easy to Close3- Durable5- Stable when standing3- Privately accessible2


    A systematic comparison of our product with that of our competitor in the eye of our customersThe product evaluation shows the potential improvement of our productStrong and weak point of our design

  • CASE 2. Product Evaluation:

    Product Attributes- Easy to carry- Easy to open- Easy to find contents- Adjustable capacity - Easy to Close- Durable- Stable when standing - Privately accessible 12345Our ProductCompetitive Product

  • CASE3. Project Objectives:

    Determining the aspects to improve involves strategic choices for relative importance of the product attributes For attributes which do not need improvement, the target value is equal to the evaluation score of current productThe improvement rate relates the desired improvement to the current performanceImprovement rate = target value/evaluation scoreWeight of each product is calculated Weight = importance x improvement rateNormalising the weighing scores into percentage

  • CASE3. Project Objectives:

    Product Attributes- Easy to carry- Easy to open- Easy to find contents- Adjustable capacity - Easy to Close- Durable- Stable when standing - Privately accessible Target ValueImprovement RateWeightWeight (%)4551.72.56.82010306124444311.311113.953231215961234533.7100

  • CASE4. Technical Parameters: Voice of the EngineersTranslate the subjective customers statement into objective engineering performance measureQFD team must create a lists of technical measurement that are most likely to predict the degree to which a need will be fulfilled (Mean-End hierarchy)

  • CASE4. Technical Parameters: - Volume394 cm3- Safety LockType X- Empty Weight2.4 Kg- Opening Steps6 steps- Segment5 segment- MaterialType K- Angle of Opening 80 degree- Closing force0.045 N- Wear of lock5000 cycle

  • CASE5. Matrix Interaction :

    Relation between the product attributes and technical parameter are investigatedHow strong is the relation for each cellA score of importance or the parameter-attribute is obtained byScore = Strength of relationship x weight of attribute The sum of these scores per column indicates the priority of the technical parameters for the project

  • 5. Matrix Interaction

  • Technical trade-offsIf one technical feature is improved, is there a strong possibility that another will also improve ? If yes then POSITIVE correlation existsAlternatively, If one technical feature is improved, is there a strong possibility that another will get worse ? If yes then NEGATIVE correlation existsKnowing the relationship and the priority for each technical parameter the company must approach the conflict as an opportunity for technical breakthrough.6. Interaction Between Technical Parameters:

  • Technical Parameters- Volume- Safety Lock- Empty Weight- Opening Steps- Segment- Material- Angle of opening - Closing force- Wear of lock6. Interaction Between Technical Parameters:

  • On the basis of technical parameter, another comparison and evaluation should be carried outOn the basis of the technical data and the priorities of the parameter the target values are now being determinedA group of related technical parameters with these target values can then be submitted as PDS to a relatively independent design assignment team of designers7. Technical Analysis and Target

  • Technical Parameters- Volume- Safety Lock- Empty Weight- Opening Steps- Segment- Material- Angle of Opening - Closing force- Wear of lock416y2.246l850.323500394x428k800.455500Competitive ProductTarget Valuecm3typekg##typedegN#394x2.465k800.455000Measurement UnitOur Product7. Technical Analysis and Target

  • 9. Development Plan : The design team will have to pay attention to the factor that will improve the overall quality of productIn this case of attache case, the designer need to work onreducing the the steps necessary to open the case to a target value of 2.Increasing the segment into 8and increasing the wearnes of the lock to 5500 cycles.