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<p>Piston Jarak toleransi antara dinding silinder dengan dinding torak: Bagian atas piston AD1 = 0,009. D (Maleev, V.L, 1986, Hal.423) = 0,009.19,15 cm = 17,23 cm (172,3 mm). Bagian bawah Piston AD2 = (0,0018 0,0025). D .(Maleev, V.L, 1986, Hal.423) = (0,0018 0,0025) 19,15 cm = (0,0344 0,0478) = 0,037 cm (0,37 mm). ..(diambil) Dari ukuran toleransi diatas, maka ukuran piston dapat dicari: Diameter kepala piston (D1) D1 = D-0,47 (Maleev, V.L,1986, Hal.425 ) = 19,15 cm (191,5 mm)-0,47 = 18,68 cm Diameter bagian bawah piston (D2) D2 = D1-0.10 ...........................(Maleev, V.L, 1985, Hal.501) D2 = 18,68-0.10 cm 18,58 cm (185,8 mm). Tebal kepala piston (t1) t1 = 0,43. D D PP ........................(Maleev, V.L,1985, Hal.499) 1</p> <p>=</p> <p>Dimana:</p> <p>= Diameter Silinder = 7,54 in = Tekanan maksimum pembakaran = 1200 Psi = Tekanan/tegangan ijin = 9400 Psi.</p> <p>1Maka: t1 = 0,43.7,54</p> <p>1200 9400</p> <p>= 1,16 in = 2,95 cm (29,5 mm). Lebar alur ring piston (t) t = (0,029 0,033).D ................(Petrovsky, N 1968, Hal.501) = (0,029 0,033)19,15 cm = (0,56 0,63 cm 0,60 cm = 0,24 in (60 mm). ......(diambil) Dalam alur ring piston (b) b = (t +1/64) in ..........................(Maleev, V.L 1945, Hal.501) =</p> <p>= (0,24+0.0156) in = 0,26 in = 0,66 cm ( 66 mm). Tebal dinding piston bagian atas (t2) t2 = (0,24 + 0,03 D + b).in .................(Maleev, V.L,1945, Hal,501) = (0,18 + 0,03.7,54 + 0,40) in = 0,81 in = 2,1 cm (21 mm).</p> <p>Tebal dinding piston bagian bawah (t3) t3 = ( 0,25 0,35 )t2 .(Maleev V.L 1945, Hal.501) = ( 0,25 0,35 ) 2,1 cm = 0,52 0,73) = 0,60 cm (60 mm). .(diambil).</p> <p>Panjang piston (L) L = (0,9 1,3). D ..(Khovakh, M.ed 1979, Hal.439) = (0,9 1,3) 19,15 cm = (17,23 24,89) = 18 cm (180 mm). .........(diambil).</p> <p>Jarak pena piston dengan kepala piston (K) K = (0,55 0,85). D .......................(Khovakh, M.ed 1979, Hal.439) = (0,55 0,85) 19,15 cm = (0,53 16,28) = 10,60 cm (106 mm). ..........(diambil).</p> <p>Diameter kedudukan pena piston (do) do = (0,34 0,38). D ..............................(Khovakh,M.ed 1979, Hal.439) = ( 0,34 0,38 )19,15 cm = (6,51 7,28) = 6,80 cm (680 mm). ...........(diambil).</p> <p>Pemeriksaan tegangan pada piston Tegangan yang timbul akibat tekanan gas maksimum adalah:</p> <p> gas =</p> <p>0,1.PD1 t12</p> <p>2</p> <p>.......................(Maleev,V.L,1985, Hal.520)</p> <p>Dimana: t 1 D1 P Maka gas</p> <p>= tebal piston = 2,95 cm = diameter = 18,68 cm (186,8 mm) = 7,35 in = Tekanan gas maksimum = 1200 Psi =(0.1.1200 (7,35 ) ( 2,95 ) 2</p> <p>= 266,5514 Psi. Ring piston Lebar ring piston (b) = (0,029 0,038). D ............................(Petrovsky,N 1968, Hal.105) = (0,029 0,038)19,15 cm. = (0,55 0,73) = 0,60 cm (60 mm). .......(ditentukan). Tebal ring piston (t) = (0,7 1,0). b ...........................(Petrovsky, N 1968, Hal.105) = ( 0,7 1,0) 0,60 cm = ( 0,42 0,60) = 0,52 cm (52 mm) ........(ditentukan) Jarak kedua ujung ring piston dalam keadaan bebas (c) c = (3,5 4,0). b ......................(Maleev, V.L,1945, Hal.112) = (3,5 4,0) 0,60 cm = (2,1 2,4) = 2,1 cm (21mm) .(ditentukan). Jarak kedua ujung ring piston dalam keadaan terpasang (c 1 ) C1 = (0,002 0,004). D ..(Maleev, V.L,1945, Hal.117)</p> <p>= (0,002 0,004)19,15 cm = (0,038 0,077) = 0,038 cm ( 0,38 mm). .(ditentukan). Jumlah ring piston (i) i i = D/19,15/10.0,52.t (Maleev,V.L, 1945 Hal.117) = 3,68 = 4. .....(ditentukan).</p> <p>Pemeriksaan terhadap kekuatan ring piston Pemeriksaan terhadap tegangan lengkung Mb Dimana: D2 /2.b. PSP ............................(Maleev, V.L,1985, Hal.123) D b Psp = Diameter = 191,5 mm = lebar ring piston = 6 mm. = tekanan spesifik permukaan ring piston dengan dinding silinder = (3,5 6) Psi ..............................(Maleev,V.L,1985, Hal.506) = (0,246 0,421) kg/cm2 = 0,4 kg/cm2 (ditentukan) Maka: Mb = (19,15)2/ 2.0,60.0,4 = 764,005 kg.cm. Pena piston Panjang pena piston (Lp) Lp = ( 0,8). D .............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.431) = 0,8.19,15 cm = 15,32 cm (153,2 mm). Diameter luar pena piston (do) do = (0,34 0,38). D = (6,51 7,28)19,15 cm = 6,60 cm ( 66 mm) ......(ditentukan).</p> <p>Diameter dalam pena piston (d1) d1 = (0,52 0,58). do .............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.43) = (0,52 0,58) 6,60 cm = (3,43 3,83) = 3,43 cm (34,3 mm). .........(ditentukan).</p> <p>Connecting Rod (Batang Torak) Dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut: Tenale Strenght = 165000 Psi Faktor keamanan =8 Tegangan ijin = 165000/8 = 1453,46 kg/cm2 Ukuran connecting rod Ukuran bagian atas 1. Diameter kedudukan pena piston (Do) = 6,6 cm (66 mm). 2. Lebar kepala (1k1) = cm /mm 1k1 = 0,4. D = 0,4.6,60 cm = 2,6 cm (26 mm). ........(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.439) 3. Tebal lapisan metal (t1) = (0,08 0,085). do ..............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.467) = (0,08 0,085) 6,60 cm = (0,53 0,56) = 0,53 cm (53 mm). ...........(ditentukan) 4. Diameter bagian dalam (dk1) dk1 = (do + 2).t1 ..........................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.467) = (6,60 + 2)0,53 cm = 7,7 cm (77 mm). 5. Diameter bagian luar (dk2) dk2 = (1,2 1,3) dk1 ............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.467) = (1,2 1,3) 7,7 cm = (9,24 10) = 9,5 cm (95 mm). ............(ditentukan). ..........(ditentukan)</p> <p>Ukuran bagian bawah</p> <p>1. Diameter bagian dalam (dk) dk = (0,5 0,65). D ...............................(Khovakh, M 1978, Hal.487) = (0,5 0,65) 19,15 cm = (9,57 12,45) = 10 cm (100 mm). .........(ditentukan) 2. Tebal lapisan metal (t11) t11 = (0,03 0,05). dk ...................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.467) = (0,03 0,05) 10 cm = (0,3 0,5) = 0,4 cm (40 mm). .........(ditentukan)</p> <p>3. Diameter bagian dalam (dkd) dkd = dk+2.t11 .............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.487) = 10+2 (0,4) = 10,8 cm (108 mm). ........(ditentukan)</p> <p>4. Diameter bagian luar (dL) dL = (1,2 1,3) dkd ..............................(Khovakh,M 1979, Hal.487) = (1,2 1,3) 10,8 cm = (12,96 14,04) = 13 cm (130 mm). ...........(ditentukan) 5. Lebar kepala (Lk) Lk = (0,4 0,6).D .................................(Khovakh,M 1979, Hal.470) = 0,4 0,6)19,15 cm = (7,66 11,49) = 8 cm (80 mm). ...........(ditentukan)</p> <p>6. Panjang Connecting Rod (L) L = 4.r ..................................(Maleev, V.L, 1945, Hal.517)</p> <p>Dimana: r = Radius Crank Pin = 4 L = 4 x 4 = 16 cm (160 mm).</p> <p>Ukuran-ukuran profil b1 =(0,12 0,15). D ...........................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal,469) = (0,12 0,15) 19,15 cm = (2,30 2,87) = 2,30 cm (30 mm). ..........(ditentukan) b2 = (0,20,37) D .........................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.488) = (0,20,37) 19,15 cm = (3,83 7,08) = 4 cm (40 mm). ...........(ditentukan h3 = 0,06. D .....................................(Khovakh,M 1979, Hal.488) = 0,06.19,15 cm = 1,15 cm (150 mm). ..........(ditentukan) h2 = (0,35 0,45). D ...........................(Khovakh,M 1979, Hal.469) = (0,35 0,45) 19,15 cm = (6,70 8,62) = 7 cm (70 mm). ..............(ditentukan)</p> <p>h1 = h2 2h3 ..............(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.469) = 7 2 (1,15) = 4,7 cm (47 mm). ........(ditentukan) Poros engkol Diameter batang penggerak (Crank pin) = 10 cm (100 mm)(dk)</p> <p>Lebar crank pin = 8 cm (80 mm).(Ik)</p> <p>Diameter Crank jurnal (dm). dm =(0,62 0,75) D ......................(Khovakh, M 1979Hal.487) = (0,62 0,75) 19,15 cm = (11,87 14,36) = 12 cm (120 mm). ..........(ditentukan)</p> <p>Panjang Crank jurnal (Lm) Lm = (0,45 0,60). dm .........................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.487) = (0,45 0,60) 12 cm = (5,4 7,2) = 6 cm (60 mm). ...........(ditentukan)</p> <p>Tebal keping engkol (h) h = (0,20 0,22). D .......................(Stolk,j &amp; kross,c.1951, Hal.503) = (0,20 0,22) 19,15 cm = (3,83 4,21) = 4 cm (40 mm). ...........(ditentukan)</p> <p>Lebar keping engkol (b) b = 0,75. D ..............................(Stolk,j &amp; kross,c:1951, Hal.503) = 0,75.19,15 cm = 14,36 cm (143,6 mm). ............................(ditentukan)</p> <p>Jarak kedua tumpuan (Lt) Lt = lk+2.Lm+2. h ....................(Stolk,j &amp; Kross,c;1951, Hal.503) = 8+2 (6)+2 (4) = 28 cm (280 mm)................(ditentukan).</p> <p>UKURAN-UKURAN UTAMA PADA MOTOR BAKARD I S U S U N OLEH ADETIA NUGRAHA 509121001</p> <p>PENDIDIKAN TEKNIK MESIN FAKULTAS TEKNIK UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MEDAN 2011</p> <p>Piston Jarak toleransi antara dinding silinder dengan dinding torak: Bagian atas piston AD1 = 0,009. D (Maleev, V.L, 1986, Hal.423) = 0,009.19,15 cm = 17,23 cm (172,3 mm). Bagian bawah Piston AD2 = (0,0018 0,0025). D .(Maleev, V.L, 1986, Hal.423) = (0,0018 0,0025) 19,15 cm = (0,0344 0,0478) = 0,037 cm (0,37 mm). ..(diambil) Dari ukuran toleransi diatas, maka ukuran piston dapat dicari: Diameter kepala piston (D1) D1 = D-0,47 (Maleev, V.L,1986, Hal.425 ) = 19,15 cm (191,5 mm)-0,47 = 18,68 cm Diameter bagian bawah piston (D2) D2 = D1-0.10 ...........................(Maleev, V.L, 1985, Hal.501) D2 = 18,68-0.10 cm 18,58 cm (185,8 mm). Tebal kepala piston (t1) t1 = 0,43. D D PP ........................(Maleev, V.L,1985, Hal.499) 1</p> <p>=</p> <p>Dimana:</p> <p>= Diameter Silinder = 7,54 in = Tekanan maksimum pembakaran = 1200 Psi = Tekanan/tegangan ijin = 9400 Psi.</p> <p>1Maka: t1 = 0,43.7,54</p> <p>1200 9400</p> <p>= 1,16 in = 2,95 cm (29,5 mm). Lebar alur ring piston (t) t = (0,029 0,033).D ................(Petrovsky, N 1968, Hal.501) = (0,029 0,033)19,15 cm = (0,56 0,63 cm 0,60 cm = 0,24 in (60 mm). ......(diambil) Dalam alur ring piston (b) b = (t +1/64) in ..........................(Maleev, V.L 1945, Hal.501) =</p> <p>= (0,24+0.0156) in = 0,26 in = 0,66 cm ( 66 mm). Tebal dinding piston bagian atas (t2) t2 = (0,24 + 0,03 D + b).in .................(Maleev, V.L,1945, Hal,501) = (0,18 + 0,03.7,54 + 0,40) in = 0,81 in = 2,1 cm (21 mm).</p> <p>Tebal dinding piston bagian bawah (t3) t3 = ( 0,25 0,35 )t2 .(Maleev V.L 1945, Hal.501) = ( 0,25 0,35 ) 2,1 cm = 0,52 0,73) = 0,60 cm (60 mm). .(diambil).</p> <p>Panjang piston (L) L = (0,9 1,3). D ..(Khovakh, M.ed 1979, Hal.439) = (0,9 1,3) 19,15 cm = (17,23 24,89) = 18 cm (180 mm). .........(diambil).</p> <p>Jarak pena piston dengan kepala piston (K) K = (0,55 0,85). D .......................(Khovakh, M.ed 1979, Hal.439) = (0,55 0,85) 19,15 cm = (0,53 16,28) = 10,60 cm (106 mm). ..........(diambil).</p> <p>Diameter kedudukan pena piston (do) do = (0,34 0,38). D ..............................(Khovakh,M.ed 1979, Hal.439) = ( 0,34 0,38 )19,15 cm = (6,51 7,28) = 6,80 cm (680 mm). ...........(diambil).</p> <p>Pemeriksaan tegangan pada piston Tegangan yang timbul akibat tekanan gas maksimum adalah:</p> <p> gas =</p> <p>0,1.PD1 t12</p> <p>2</p> <p>.......................(Maleev,V.L,1985, Hal.520)</p> <p>Dimana: t 1 D1 P Maka gas</p> <p>= tebal piston = 2,95 cm = diameter = 18,68 cm (186,8 mm) = 7,35 in = Tekanan gas maksimum = 1200 Psi =(0.1.1200 (7,35 ) ( 2,95 ) 2</p> <p>= 266,5514 Psi. Ring piston Lebar ring piston (b) = (0,029 0,038). D ............................(Petrovsky,N 1968, Hal.105) = (0,029 0,038)19,15 cm. = (0,55 0,73) = 0,60 cm (60 mm). .......(ditentukan). Tebal ring piston (t) = (0,7 1,0). b ...........................(Petrovsky, N 1968, Hal.105) = ( 0,7 1,0) 0,60 cm = ( 0,42 0,60) = 0,52 cm (52 mm) ........(ditentukan) Jarak kedua ujung ring piston dalam keadaan bebas (c) c = (3,5 4,0). b ......................(Maleev, V.L,1945, Hal.112) = (3,5 4,0) 0,60 cm = (2,1 2,4) = 2,1 cm (21mm) .(ditentukan). Jarak kedua ujung ring piston dalam keadaan terpasang (c 1 ) C1 = (0,002 0,004). D ..(Maleev, V.L,1945, Hal.117)</p> <p>= (0,002 0,004)19,15 cm = (0,038 0,077) = 0,038 cm ( 0,38 mm). .(ditentukan). Jumlah ring piston (i) i i = D/19,15/10.0,52.t (Maleev,V.L, 1945 Hal.117) = 3,68 = 4. .....(ditentukan).</p> <p>Pemeriksaan terhadap kekuatan ring piston Pemeriksaan terhadap tegangan lengkung Mb Dimana: D2 /2.b. PSP ............................(Maleev, V.L,1985, Hal.123) D b Psp = Diameter = 191,5 mm = lebar ring piston = 6 mm. = tekanan spesifik permukaan ring piston dengan dinding silinder = (3,5 6) Psi ..............................(Maleev,V.L,1985, Hal.506) = (0,246 0,421) kg/cm2 = 0,4 kg/cm2 (ditentukan) Maka: Mb = (19,15)2/ 2.0,60.0,4 = 764,005 kg.cm. Pena piston Panjang pena piston (Lp) Lp = ( 0,8). D .............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.431) = 0,8.19,15 cm = 15,32 cm (153,2 mm). Diameter luar pena piston (do) do = (0,34 0,38). D = (6,51 7,28)19,15 cm = 6,60 cm ( 66 mm) ......(ditentukan).</p> <p>Diameter dalam pena piston (d1) d1 = (0,52 0,58). do .............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.43) = (0,52 0,58) 6,60 cm = (3,43 3,83) = 3,43 cm (34,3 mm). .........(ditentukan).</p> <p>Connecting Rod (Batang Torak) Dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut: Tenale Strenght = 165000 Psi Faktor keamanan =8 Tegangan ijin = 165000/8 = 1453,46 kg/cm2 Ukuran connecting rod Ukuran bagian atas 6. Diameter kedudukan pena piston (Do) = 6,6 cm (66 mm). 7. Lebar kepala (1k1) = cm /mm 1k1 = 0,4. D = 0,4.6,60 cm = 2,6 cm (26 mm). ........(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.439) 8. Tebal lapisan metal (t1) = (0,08 0,085). do ..............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.467) = (0,08 0,085) 6,60 cm = (0,53 0,56) = 0,53 cm (53 mm). ...........(ditentukan) 9. Diameter bagian dalam (dk1) dk1 = (do + 2).t1 ..........................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.467) = (6,60 + 2)0,53 cm = 7,7 cm (77 mm). 10. Diameter bagian luar (dk2) dk2 = (1,2 1,3) dk1 ............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.467) = (1,2 1,3) 7,7 cm = (9,24 10) = 9,5 cm (95 mm). ............(ditentukan). ..........(ditentukan)</p> <p>Ukuran bagian bawah</p> <p>7. Diameter bagian dalam (dk) dk = (0,5 0,65). D ...............................(Khovakh, M 1978, Hal.487) = (0,5 0,65) 19,15 cm = (9,57 12,45) = 10 cm (100 mm). .........(ditentukan) 8. Tebal lapisan metal (t11) t11 = (0,03 0,05). dk ...................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.467) = (0,03 0,05) 10 cm = (0,3 0,5) = 0,4 cm (40 mm). .........(ditentukan)</p> <p>9. Diameter bagian dalam (dkd) dkd = dk+2.t11 .............................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.487) = 10+2 (0,4) = 10,8 cm (108 mm). ........(ditentukan)</p> <p>10. Diameter bagian luar (dL) dL = (1,2 1,3) dkd ..............................(Khovakh,M 1979, Hal.487) = (1,2 1,3) 10,8 cm = (12,96 14,04) = 13 cm (130 mm). ...........(ditentukan) 11. Lebar kepala (Lk) Lk = (0,4 0,6).D .................................(Khovakh,M 1979, Hal.470) = 0,4 0,6)19,15 cm = (7,66 11,49) = 8 cm (80 mm). ...........(ditentukan)</p> <p>12. Panjang Connecting Rod (L) L = 4.r ..................................(Maleev, V.L, 1945, Hal.517)</p> <p>Dimana: r = Radius Crank Pin = 4 L = 4 x 4 = 16 cm (160 mm).</p> <p>Ukuran-ukuran profil b1 =(0,12 0,15). D ...........................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal,469) = (0,12 0,15) 19,15 cm = (2,30 2,87) = 2,30 cm (30 mm). ..........(ditentukan) b2 = (0,20,37) D .........................(Khovakh, M 1979, Hal.488) = (0,20,37) 19,15 cm = (3,83 7,08) = 4 cm (40 mm). ...........(ditentukan h3 = 0,06. D .....................................(Khovakh,M 1979, Hal.488) = 0,06.19,15 cm = 1,15 cm (150 mm). ..........(ditentukan) h2 = (0,35 0,45). D ...........................(Khovakh,M 1979, Hal.469) = (0,35 0,45) 19,15 cm = (6,70 8,62) = 7 cm (70 mm). ..........</p>

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