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    SUTEDJOLab. Ekologi Hutan dan Konservasi

    PIK-

    S2_Lingkungan

    [email protected]

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    Development Energy

    Space

    Waste

    Climate change

    Disaster

    (natural..?)

    Local

    impact

    Sustain

    [email protected]

    Global Warming

    Global impact

    Waste

    Waste

    Waste

    Waste

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    Manusia dan Ruang

    (dalam perspektif ekosistem)

    Manusia Bertambah,Meningkat tuntutan:

    Energi dalam

    Ekosistem

    1. Energi

    2. Ruang

    Energi habis pakai

    Energi terbarukan

    R U M

    Dampak Pembangunan

    Makhluk

    hidup lain?

    ?

    Manusia

    Survive?

    the population

    of the world is6,789,976,917.

    (12 Oct.2009)

    Pik-dhe

    tedjo-2011

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    Energy Conversion

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    Electrical gain by fossil combustion and nuclear power

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    Energy Use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)

    Nr. Negara EU*

    EMS**

    (metric

    ton CO2)

    Income

    (US Dollar)

    Electric.

    Use

    Electric.

    available1 Australia 6,019 18,6 46,200 10,864,152 222,000,000,000

    2 Bangladesh 192 0,3 700 148,048 23,940,000,000

    3 Malaysia 2,655 7,6 7,760 3,724,048 99,250,000,000

    4 Indonesia 816 1,7 2,500 508,321 119,300,000,000

    5 Japan 3,880 9,5 41,850 7,701,962 858,500,000,000

    6 Thailand 1,557 4,2 4,150 2,052,118 134,400,000,000

    7 Vietnam 685 1,5 1,160 602,259 85,600,000,000

    8 Singapore 3,452 6,7 40,070 8,053,094 37,110,000,000

    9 China 1,559 ?? 4,270 2,584,876

    3,438,000,000,0

    00

    10 India 520 1,5 1,270 502,714 568,000,000,00011 Brazil 1,298 2,1 9,350 2,116,723 402,200,000,000

    12 Rusia 4,850 12.00 9,900 6,968,565 857,600,000,000

    13 South Korea 4,669 10,5 19,890 7,515,579 402,000,000,000

    14 North Korea 860 3,2 ?? 800,713 18,800,000,000

    15 Arab Saudi 5,888 16,6 16,190 5,981,659 165,100,000,000

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    The Top 10 Countries that Use Nuclear Energy Power

    Plants in Terms of Percentage of Electricity Generated

    from Nuclear Energy

    1) France - 76.2%

    2) Slovakia - 56.4%

    3) Belgium - 53.8%

    4) Ukraine - 47.4%5) Armenia - 43.5%

    6) Sweden - 42%

    7) Slovenia and Croatia share the same place - 41.7%

    8) Switzerland - 39.2%

    9) Hungary - 37.2%

    10) South Korea - 35.6%

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    Electrical Energy Produced By Fossil Fuel Combustion

    (Billion

    Kilowatthours)

    G8 NationFossil Fuel

    CombustionTotal %

    Canada 154.55 569.41 27.1%France 52.23 535.45 9.8%

    Germany 354.78 561.57 63.2%

    Italy 223.16 268.18 83.2%

    Japan 640.17 982.76 65.1%

    Russia 569.72 869.07 65.6%

    United Kingdom 278.21 373.26 74.5%

    United States 2,758.65 3,891.72 70.9%

    Source:International Energy Database (2008), Energy Information Administration

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    Pemanasan global (global warming)

    Dampak akumulasi polusi di udara (atmosfer) akibat pembakaranbahan bakar mengandung senyawa hidrokarbon (kayu, energiberasal dari fosil hidrokarbon)

    Polutant terakumulasi membangun sungkup (bejana di atmosferbumi/efek rumah kaca) yang menghalangi pantulan panas dari bumikembali ke atmosfer sehingga terjadi gejala global warming(pemanasan global).

    Global warming diyakini oleh mayoritas sebagai ancaman bagipembangunan berkelanjutan.

    Berbagai upaya dilakukan agar global warming dapatdikendalikan/dikurangi antara lain melalui proyek tanam pohonberhadiah (CDM-project) maupun proyek kurangi tebang pohon

    berhadiah (REDD-project dan REDD-plus-project) Sayangnya belum ada proyek kurangi bakar energi fosil

    berhadiah.siapa yang mau ngasih hadiah?

    Pik-dhe

    tedjo-2011

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    Glasshouse Effect

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    Humans Activities

    The most obvious impact of humans onecosystems is the loss of biodiversity. Thenumber of extinctions caused by humandomination of ecosystems has been steadilyincreasing since the start of the IndustrialRevolution.

    The frequency of species extinctions iscorrelated to the size of human population onthe Earth. This size of the human population isdirectly related to resource consumption, land-use change, and environmental degradation.

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    Pembangunan

    Merupakan keniscayaan

    Motor penggerak peradaban manusia

    Melahap energi dan memangsa banyak ruang

    Menimbulkan akibat dan dampak Konsumsi energi perkapita negara kaya/maju

    lebih besar daripada negaramiskin/berkembang.

    Konsumsi energi perkapita tidak selalu linier(berbanding lurus) dengan kerusakanlingkungan.

    Pik-dhetedjo-2011

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    Pemanfaatan LingkunganPerubahan Lingkungan

    Timbul Akibat (effect) maupun

    dampak (impact)

    PEMBANGUNAN

    (Usaha atau Kegiatan)

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    As of 12 October 2009, the

    population of the world, according to

    the regularly updated population

    clock, is 6,789,976,917. This figurecontinues to rise with every minute.

    (browsing google, 10 Juni 2010).

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    7,051,420,189

    Population growth today

    183,146Births today

    78,220Deaths today

    104,926Net population growth today

    Population growth this year

    67,653,113Births this year

    28,894,054Deaths this year

    38,759,059Net population growth this year

    Current World Population: 7,051,420,189

    Diunggah dari: current world population by worldometer

    (5 Juli 2012, pk. 12.10 wite)

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    7,126,447,295

    Population growth today

    191,597Births today

    81,829Deaths today

    109,768Net population growth today

    Population growth this year

    65,847,856Births this year

    28,123,044Deaths this year

    37,724,812Net population growth this year

    Current World Population: 7,126,447,425

    Diunggah dari: current world population by worldometer

    (1 Juli 2013, pk. 12.40 wi te)

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    How is the population distributed around the world?

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    Land Surface

    29.2% of the Earth's surface is

    covered by land surface (149million km2), and 70.8% of the

    Earth's surface is water (361

    million km2).

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    Ekosistem

    Ruang Kehidupan

    Udara/tanah/air

    Sun

    heterotrof

    Auto-

    trof

    Pik-dhetedjo-2011

    Auto-

    trofAuto-

    trof

    Auto-

    trof

    Auto-

    trofAuto-

    trofheterotrof

    heterotrofheterotrofheterotrof

    heterotrof

    heterotrof

    heterotrof

    heterotrof

    Auto-

    trofAuto-

    trof

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    Sang

    Konsumen

    (Consumers)

    BIOLO

    GIt-dhetedjo-2011

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    Plant species diversity

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    How is the population distributed around the world?

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    Plant species diversity How is the population distributedaround the world?

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    Tidak secara spesifik disebut dalam UU 41/1999 tentang

    kehutanan.

    Hanya dikenal hutan dengan fungsi konservasi (selain

    dua fungsi yang lain)

    Justru ada dalam UUPR 26/2007 (dalam lingkup

    kawasan lindung)

    Konservasi Hayati

    bukan hanya urusan

    hutan/kehutanan

    Kawasan konservasi

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    STATUS JENIS DALAM PERLINDUNGAN

    (berdasar iucn-red list)

    1. Terabaikan (least concern)

    2. Hampir terancam (near threatened)3. Tergantung perlindungan (conservationdependent)

    4. Rawan punah (vulnerable)

    5. Terancam (endangered)

    6. Genting (critically endangered)

    7. Punah di alam (extinct in the wild)

    8. Punah (extinct)

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    Unit atau kesatuan pengelolaan konservasi

    dibagi dalam tiga tingkatan :

    1. Unit Ekosistem

    2. Unit Jenis (Species)

    3. Unit genetik/plasma nutfah (germ plasm)

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    1. Unit Ekosistem dikelola berdasar potensikeragaman ekosistem

    2. Unit Jenis (Species) dikelola berdasar

    potensi keragaman jenis (spesies) pada

    suatu ekosistem3. Unit genetik/plasma nutfah (germ plasm)

    dikelola berdasar potensi keragaman

    genetik dalam suatu spesies

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    Memahami Ekosistem

    Ada gamelan, keroncong, Pop, dangdut, jazz, orkestra dll. (sulit

    mengatakan musik yang satu lebih baik drpd yang lainnya)

    Ada seperangkat alat musik (elemen penyusun ekosistem).

    Cara membunyikan alat yang dipetik, dipukul, ditiup, digesek (sifat2

    spesifik elemen) Ada yang tunggal ada yang lebih dari satu (populasi tiap elemen)

    Bahan pembuat berbeda-beda (habitus, sifat fisualistik)

    Ada yang besar ada yang kecil (atribut dimensional)

    Menghasilkan bunyi spesifik (relung ekologis, niche) Berfungsi/difungsikan dengan pola nada tertentu (posisi/peran

    ekologis).

    Ekosistem itu ibarat Musik

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    Alat Musik

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    Elemen Penyusun Ekosistem

    (matarantai ekosistem)

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    KONSERVASIFLORA FAUNA

    Perlindungan/Penetapan al.

    kawasan Hutan konservasi

    (TWA, TN dan Tahura)

    Perlindungan

    status Hukum,

    IUCN

    Penetapan/perlindungan spesies

    target misal berupa suaka

    margasatwa dan

    cagar alam

    Perlindunganswakarsa,

    kesadaran

    publik

    Perlindungan/Kesepakatan antar

    pihak (al. CITES)

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    Invasive Species (Alien)

    Spesies tumbuhan atau satwa

    Datang dari tempat lain masuk ke dalam suatuekosistem yang sedang mengalamigangguan/distabilitas.

    Tumbuh pesat, menjadi dominan permanen ditempat baru.

    Dapat menggilas maupun mengusir spesies

    yang asli. Secara ekologis ekonomis cenderung

    merugikan.

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    Acacia nilotica, TN Meru Betiri

    Ikan Pearchdanau Victoria

    Ikan Tomangdanau Jempang

    Eichornia crassipes (Eceng Gondok)

    seluruh sungai dan danau besar

    Merremia peltata, TN Sumatera

    Selatan

    BOTH ANIMAL AND PLANTS

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    Taman nasionalBaluran, JaTim

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    Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck

    Keong masdewasa dan

    telur di daun

    padi

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    Population Growth and Competition-1

    Odum (1971) defines populat ionas acollective group of organisms of the samespecies (or other groups within which individualsmay exchange genetic information) occupying a

    particular space, that has various characteristics,which, although best expressed as statisticalfunctions, are the unique possession of thegroup and are not characteristic of the

    individuals in the group.

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    Population Growth and Competition-2

    Some of these properties are density, natality

    (birth rate), mortality (death rate), age

    distribution, biotic potential, dispersion and

    growth form. Populations also possess geneticcharacteristics directly related to their ecology:

    adaptiveness, reproductive (Darwinian) fitness

    and persistence (i.e. probability of leaving

    descendents over long periods of time).

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    Population Growth and Competition-3

    We know that populations cannot grow

    indefinitely (including humans). Resources are

    limited so a leveling off must occur.The

    population growth theories such an S-shapedpopulation curve called Sigmoid grow th curve

    as well as different theories and models for

    competition among population/species.

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    Tuntutan terhadap ENERGI meningkat

    Energy consumBumi makin panas

    CDM

    REDD

    REDD+

    Pik-dhetedjo-2011

    Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)

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    Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is

    equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to

    ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

    International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).

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    WHAT ARE THE MAIN SOURCES OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS?

    Since the Industrial Revolution, human

    activitiessuch as the burning of oil, coaland gas, as

    well as deforestationhave greatly

    increased CO2concentrations in the atmosphere. As

    we can see from figure 1, almost all CO2emissions(about 96.5%) come from fossil fuelsuse. The 3

    types of fossil fuelsthat are used the most

    are coal, natural gasand petroleum. When fossil

    fuelsare combusted, the carbon stored in them is

    emitted almost entirely as CO2.1

    http://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.php
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    Top 10 Countries that use Nuclear Energy Power

    Plants in Terms of Power Generated in Megawatts

    The energy produced by nuclear energy power plants is

    measured in megawatts. The United States tops the list

    with more than 101 megawatts of power produced. Thisis roughly one-fourth of the total nuclear energy

    produced in the world. France follows at a far second

    with energy output of 63 megawatts. Japan takes the

    third place followed by Russia and Germany, which

    completes the list of the top five countries that produceelectricity from nuclear energy power plants.

    The Top 10 Countries that use Nuclear Energy Power

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    The Top 10 Countries that use Nuclear Energy Power

    Plants in Terms of Megawatts of Energy

    1) United States of America2) France

    3) Japan

    4) Russia

    5) Germany

    6) South Korea

    7) Ukraine

    8) Canada

    9) United Kingdom

    10) Sweden

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    Electricity Generated from Nuclear Energy

    Although the United States ranks first in the amount ofenergy produced (in megawatts) from nuclear power

    plants, it is France that leads the pack when the

    percentage of electricity generated from nuclear energy

    is concerned. France generates more than 76% of its

    total electricity from nuclear energy. The U.S. comes far

    behind at 16th as only 19.7% of the total electricity

    produced is produced from nuclear energy. 14% of

    electricity produced in the world is generated from

    nuclear energy. Surprisingly smaller countries likeSlovakia, Belgium, Ukraine and Armenia complete the

    top five list. All these countries generate an average of

    more than 50% of the total electricity generated from

    nuclear energy.

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    The three main sectors that

    use fossil fuelsare:

    1. Transportation2. Utilities (power, gas, oil etc...)

    3. Industrial production

    http://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.php
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    (Ruang Kehidupan)

    Dapat disebut Ekosistem (bagian atau elemendari biome)

    Elemen dasar ekosistem adalah udara,tanah,air(abiotic element) dan Tumbuhan (autotrof) serta

    manusia+satwa (heterotrof)-biotic elements Manusia menjadikan dirinya heterotrof paling

    berkuasa dalam ekosistem

    Tuntutan perkembangan peradaban yang

    dinamis menjadikan manusia mengatur sertamemanfaatkan elemen abiotik dan elementbiotik lain, termasuk ruang.

    Pik-dhetedjo-2011

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    Glasshouse Gas Emissions

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    2.Livestock:

    Farm animals create methane emissions in 2 ways. Animals like cows, sheep

    and goats are examples of ruminant animalsand during their normal digestion

    process they create large amounts of methane. What is called enteric

    fermentationoccurs in the stomach of these animals and produces methaneas

    a by-product.

    The second way that livestockcreate methane emissions is from theirmanure.

    When cows, pigs and chickens are raised in an industrial way, there are

    obviously large quantities of manurethat get produced by these animalseveryday so farms have to have a way to manage and treat all of this manure.

    Livestock manure management is done by using large waste treatment

    systems and holding tanks. In these tanks the manuredecomposes but

    because the tanks are closed there is no oxygen. When organic

    materialdecomposes anaerobically(without oxygen) great quantities of

    methane are produced.It's not the animals themselves that are at fault, it's the way and the amount

    of livestockthat is raised that should be evaluated. The meat that we eat

    everyday contributes significantly to total methane emissions because of these

    2 reasons.

    http://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.php
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    3. Landfills:

    As with manure, landfillsand open garbage dumps

    are full of organic matterfrom our garbage (things like

    food scraps, newspapers, cut grass and leaves).Everytime new garbage comes in it is pilled over the

    old garbage that was already there. The organic

    matterin our garbage gets trapped in conditions

    where there is no oxygen (anaerobic) and because of

    this large amounts of methaneis created.

    http://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.phphttp://www.whatsyourimpact.eu.org/glossary.php
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    Krisis Air

    Memahami Ekosistem

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    Memahami Ekosistem

    Ada gamelan, keroncong, Pop, dangdut, jazz, orkestra dll. (sulit

    mengatakan musik yang satu lebih baik drpd yang lainnya)

    Ada seperangkat alat musik (elemen penyusun ekosistem).

    Alat yang dipetik, dipukul, ditiup, digesek (sifat2 spesifik elemen)

    Ada yang tunggal ada yang lebih dari satu (populasi tiap elemen)

    Bahan pembuat berbeda-beda (habitus, sifat fisualistik)

    Ada yang besar ada yang kecil (atribut dimensional)

    Menghasilkan bunyi spesifik (relung ekologis, niche)

    Berfungsi/difungsikan dengan pola tertentu (posisi/peranekologis).

    Ekosistem itu ibarat Musik

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    Musik mana lebih baik daripada yang

    lain?????

    Alat mana yang lebih penting dibanding

    yang lain????

    Siapa yang harus (BERHAK) menilai?

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    Ragam ekosistem

    Ekosistem daratan (terestrial) dan perairan (aquatik).

    Ada ekostsem danau

    Ada ekosistem pantai

    Ada eksosistem hutan

    Ada ekosistem rawa dan rawa gambut Ada ekosistem kapur dan Karst

    Ada ekosistem muara/ delta sungai besar

    Ada ekosistem persawahan dan perkampungan

    Ada ekositem perkebunan.

    Ada ekosistem perkotaan.

    Ekositem hutan pegunungan.

    Ekosistem terumbu karang.

    Bagaimana Menghargai Ekosistem?

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    Bagaimana Menghargai Ekosistem?

    Tahukah saya batasan atau pengertian ekosistem secara universal?

    Ekosistem apa yang sedang saya hadapi/akan dinilai?

    Seberapa mampu saya mengetahui elemen penyusun ekosistem?

    Bagaimana saya mengetahui atribut masing-masing penyusunekosistem?

    Sejauh mana saya mengetahui fungsi/peranan ekologis masing-

    masing elemen?

    Seberapa mampu saya menakar nilai ekonomi-sosial elemen2

    tersebut? Seberapa signifikant/nyata kepentingan saya terhadap fungsi

    ekologis dan nilai sosial-konomi elemen ekosistem tsb?

    Untuk menghargai (memberi nilai) pada ekosistem, perlu pertanyaan

    berikut dijawab oleh setiap calon penilai:

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    Isu-isu terkini ekosistem

    Jawa terancam kelangkaan air. Tekanan jumlah

    penduduk jadi penyebab. (4 Juli 2012)

    El Nino tebar ancaman kekeringan (4 Juli)

    Kenaikan permukaan air laut sult dikendalikan. Gambut terdegradasi hingga 50% (30 Juni)

    Kebakaran lahan dan lahan di Colorado (30

    Juni)

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    Landasan Hukum Konservasi

    Landasan hukum UU konservasi no.5/1990, UU Penataan Ruang nr. 26/2007,UU Kehutanan nr. 41/1999.

    Konservasi kawasan al. hutan denganfungsi konservasi, fungsi lindung (UU nr.41/1999)

    Konservasi Kawasan Lindung al. daerahrawan bencana, sempadan sungai,mataair, cagar budaya dll (UU nr.26/2007)

    Pik-d

    hetedjo-2011

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    Konservasi Kawasan Hutan

    Cagar alam, misal CA Kersik Luway

    Suaka margasatwa, misal Ujung Kulon

    Taman nasional (TN), misal TN Kutai

    Taman Wisata alam (TWA)

    Taman hutan raya (TAHURA), misal Bukit

    Soeharto

    Taman Buru, belum ada di Kaltim

    Pik-d

    hetedjo-2011

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    Hutan Lindung

    Topografi/bentang alam terjal Kawasan hutan dengan fungsi melindungi

    kehidupan (manusia) di bagian hilirnya

    Mencegah banjir, tanah longsor

    Menjaga tataair dan kesuburan tanah bagikehidupan di bagian hilir/di bawahnya (sawah,ladang, pemukiman)

    Contoh di Kaltim Hutan Lindung Sungai Weindan Manggar (sudah ditunjuk oleh pemerintah)untuk melindungi masyrakat kota Balikpapan

    Pik-d

    hetedjo-2011

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    SuteDjo

    HP-0812 5302 0541

    Pik-d

    hetedjo-2011

    SEKI N DULU

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    SUTEDJO

    pns dosen ptn

    PENGANTAR ILMU KONSERVASI

    PROGRAM PASCA ILMU LINGKUNGAN

    pakte

    [email protected]

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    Energy Consumption

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    Which Country?

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    World Energy Consumption, 1965-2008

    E C i

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    Energy Conversion

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    Pemanfaatan Lingkungan

    Perubahan Lingkungan

    Timbul Akibat (effect) maupun

    dampak (impact)

    PEMBANGUNAN

    (Usaha atau Kegiatan)

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    Sumber Daya Alam Hayati Indonesia, Potensi &

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    y y ,

    Ancaman Kepunahan

    Indonesia memiliki potensi keanekaragaman spesiessatwa yang sangat tinggi, yaitu sekitar 12% (515 species,39% endemik) dari total spesies binatang menyusui,urutan kedua di dunia; 7,3% (511 spesies, 150 endemik)dari total spesies reptilian, urutan keempat di dunia; 17%(1531 spesies, 397 endemik) dari total spesies burung didunia, urutan kelima; 270 spesies amfibi, 100 endemik,urutan keenam di dunia; dan 2827 spesies binatang tidakbertulang belakang, selain ikan air tawar. Selanjutnya,Indonesia memiliki 35 spesies primata (urutan keempat,18% endemik) dan 121 spesies kupu-kupu (44%endemik). Indonesia menjadi satu-satunya negarasetelah Brazil, dan mungkin Columbia, dalam hal urutan

    keanekaragaman ikan air tawar, yaitu sekitar 1400spesies (Dephut 1994; Mittermeier dkk. 1997).

    Tumbuhan

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    Tumbuhan

    Dalam hal keanekaragaman tumbuhan,

    Indonesia menduduki peringkat lima besar di

    dunia; yaitu memiliki lebih dari 38.000

    spesies, 55% endemik. Keanekaragaman

    palem di Indonesia menempati urutanpertama, mencapai 477, 225 endemik. Lebih

    dari setengah dari seluruh spesies (350)

    pohon penghasil kayu bernilai ekonomi

    penting (dari famili Dipterocarpaceae)terdapat di negara ini, 155 di antaranya

    endemik di Kalimantan (Dephut 1994;

    Newman 1999).

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    Status terancam (endangered) biasa

    digunakan oleh IUCN, merupakan statuspada tingkat taksonomi JENIS.

    Status dilindungi tidak bersifat permanen

    (CITES)

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    STATUS JENIS DALAM PERLINDUNGAN

    (berdasar iucn-red list)

    1. Terabaikan (least concern)

    2. Hampir terancam (near threatened)

    3. Tergantung perlindungan (conservationdependent)

    4. Rawan punah (vulnerable)

    5. Terancam (endangered)

    6. Genting (critically endangered)

    7. Punah di alam (extinct in the wild)

    8. Punah (extinct)

    D P d d

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    Dasar Perundang-undangan

    Terkait Konservasi

    1. UU No. 24/1992 tentang Penataan ruang

    2. UU No. 26/2007 tentang penataan ruang

    3. UU No. 5/1990 tentang Konservasi Sumber Daya Hayati danEkosistemnya.

    4. UU No. 41/1999, tentang Kehutanan5. UU No. 27/2001 tentang Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup.

    6. PP No. 34/ 2002 Tentang Tata Hutan dan PenyusunanRencana Pengelolaan Hutan, Pemanfaatan Hutan danPenggunaan Kawasan Hutan.

    7. PP No. 6/2007 Tentang Tata Hutan dan Penyusunan Rencana

    Pengelolaan Hutan, Serta Pemanfaatan Hutan.8. PP No. 25/2000 Tentang pembagian kewenangan..

    9. PP No. 38/2007 Tentang pembagian kewenangan

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    TINGKAT KONSERVASI

    1. Tingkat Ekosistem

    2. Tingkat Spesies

    3. Tingkat Genetik (plasma

    nutfah)

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    Konsumsi Enerji dan Perubahan Iklim

    (Climate Change)

    1. Pemanasan Global (globalwarming)

    2. Gas Rumah Kaca (ERK)

    3. Negara Industri Maju (G-8)

    4. Dari CDM ke REDD

    5. Dari G-7, G-8 hingga G-20

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    BEBERAPA CONTOH KAWASAN

    KONSERVASI

    1. Kalimantan Timur

    2. Kalimantan

    3. Indonesia

    4. Dunia

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