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PENGARUH VARIASI BAHAN PEREKAT ( ADHESIVE ) TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK SERAPAN BUNYI KOMPOSIT SANDWICH UPRs - CANTULA ANYAMAN 3D DENGAN CORE

SAMPAH KOTA

SKRIPSI

Diajukan sebagai salah satu syarat untuk memperoleh gelar

Sarjana Teknik

Oleh :

Ivan Ardhian Aria I 0402038

JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN FAKULTAS TEKNIK UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET

SURAKARTA 2009

DAFTAR ISI

Halaman Halaman Judul..................................................................................................... i Halaman Pengesahan .......................................................................................... ii Motto................................................................................................................... iii Persembahan ...................................................................................................... iv Kata Pengantar ................................................................................................... v Daftar Isi ............................................................................................................ vii Daftar Gambar .................................................................................................... ix Daftar Tabel ....................................................................................................... x Daftar Lampiran ................................................................................................. xi Daftar Notasi....................................................................................................... xii Abstrak ............................................................................................................... xiii Abstract ............................................................................................................... xiv BAB I PENDAHULUAN 1.1 Latar Belakang Masalah ...................................................................... 2 1.2 Perumusan Masalah ............................................................................. 3 1.3 Batasan Masalah .................................................................................. 3 1.4 Tujuan Penelitian................................................................................. 4 1.5 Manfaat Penelitian............................................................................... 4 BAB II DASAR TEORI 2.1 Tinjauan Pustaka.................................................................................. 5 2.2 Pengertian Komposit ........................................................................... 6 2.3 Serat Cantula ....................................................................................... 7 2.4 Matrik .................................................................................................. 8 2.5 Katalis .................................................................................................. 9 2.6 Skin ...................................................................................................... 9 2.7 Core ..................................................................................................... 10 2.8 Adhesive............................................................................................... 10 2.8.1 Chloroprene............................................................................... 10 2.8.2 Yukalac 157 BQTN-Ex.............................................................. 10 2.8.3 Versamid 140/ Epoxi................................................................. 11 2.9 Fraksi Berat Komposit......................................................................... 11 2.10 Gelombang Bunyi.............................................................................. 11 2.11 Impedansi Akustik............................................................................. 12 2.12 Transmisi dan Refleksi Gelombang Bunyi........................................ 12 2.13 Frekuensi dan Periode ....................................................................... 14 2.14 Pola Gelombang Berdiri (Standing Wave Pattern)........................... 14 2.15 Koefisien Serapan Bunyi................................................................... 15 2.16 Perhitungan Standar Error................................................................. 16 2.17 Material Akustik................................................................................ 17

2.18 Tinjauan Umum Sampah................................................................... 18 2.19 Hipotesis............................................................................................ 19 BAB III METODE PENELITIAN 3.1 Diagram Alir Penelitian...................................................................... 20 3.2 Alat dan Bahan Penelitian .................................................................. 21 3.1.1 Alat Penelitian........................................................................... 21

3.1.2 Bahan Penelitian........................................................................ 22 3.3 Skema Alat Uji Serapan Bunyi........................................................... 23 3.3 Pembuatan Benda Uji....................................................................... .. 25 3.3.1 Proses Pembuatan Skin Komposit............................................ 25 3.3.2 Proses Pembuatan Core Sampah Kota ...................................... 25 3.3.3 Pembuatan Komposit Sandwich ................................................ 26 3.5 Pengujian Spesimen............................................................................ 27 3.6 Rancangan Penelitian ......................................................................... 27 BAB IV DATA DAN ANALISA 4.1 Data Benda Uji Variasi Adhesive........................................................ 28 4.2 Koefisien Serapan Bunyi Benda Uji Variasi Adhesive ....................... 28 4.3 Perbandingan Koefisien Serapan Bunyi Benda Uji............................. 29 4.4 Koefisien Serapan Bunyi Material Pembanding.................................. 31 BAB V KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN 5.1 Kesimpulan.......................................................................................... 34 5.2 Saran .................................................................................................... 34 DAFTAR PUSTAKA ......................................................................................... 35 LAMPIRAN........................................................................................................ 36

DAFTAR GAMBAR

Halaman Gambar 2.1 Kontruksi Komposit Sandwich ...................................................... 7 Gambar 2.2 Agave Cantula Roxb ...................................................................... 7 Gambar 2.3 Fenomena Refleksi Dan Transmisi Pada Bidang Batas Medium..................................................................... 13 Gambar 2.4 Gelombang ..................................................................................... 14 Gambar 2.5 Standing Wave................................................................................ 15 Gambar 2.6 Fenomena Bunyi Yang Mengenai Material Penyerap ................... 16 Gambar 3.1 Diagram Alir Penelitian................................................................... 20 Gambar 3.2 Alat Pengujian................................................................................ 21 Gambar 3.3 Model Ayaman LIAW.................................................................... 21 Gambar 3.4 (a) Cetakan, (b) Dongkrak Hidrolik, (c) Timbangan Elektronik, (d) Oven.............................................. 22 Gambar 3.5 Skema Alat Uji Serapan Bunyi ...................................................... 23 Gambar 3.6 Bentuk Spesimen Uji...................................................................... 27 Gambar 4.1 Grafik Perbandingan Koefisien Serapan Bunyi Variasi Adhesive ............................................................................. 30

DAFTAR TABEL

Halaman Tabel 1 Sifat Resin 157 BQTN-EX Setelah Mengeras....................................... 9 Tabel 2 Koefisien Serapan Bunyi Pada Beberapa Material Akustik Komersial .................................................. 17 Tabel 3 Jumlah Spesimen Uji ............................................................................. 27 Tabel 4 Data Benda Uji Variasi Adhesive .......................................................... 28 Tabel 5 Data Hasil Pengujian Serapan Bunyi Benda Uji Variasi Adhesive................ 28 Tabel 6 Perbandingan Koefisien Serapan Bunyi Benda Uji Adhesive Dengan Beberapa Material Akustik Komersial...................................... 31

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

Halaman Lampiran A Data Pengujian Redam Akustik (Serapan Bunyi) ....................... 37 Lampiran B Perhitungan Perbandingan Data Hasil Pengujian........................ 38

DAFTAR NOTASI n = Koefisien serapan bunyi

a = Estimasi Standart Error

f = Frekuensi (Hz)

n = Jumlah data

p = Tekanan akustik (Pa.s/m)

Pi = Tekanan gelombang datang

Pt = Tekanan gelombang transmisi

Pr = Tekanan gelombang refleksi

r = Koefisien determinasi

R = Koefisien refleksi tekanan

R = Koefisien refleksi

S = Estimasi varian

SWR = Standing wave ratio

SEE = Sum of Square Error

T = Koefisien transmisi tekanan

T = Periode

u = Kecepatan partikel dalam medium (m/s)

Vmak = Tegangan maksimum yang terukur (v)

Vmin =

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