pendalaman materi esensial dan sulit 2010-2011 bahasa inggris

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PENGANTAR PENDALAMAN MATERI ESENSIAL DAN SULIT A. Reading Bahasa memungkinkan kita untuk melakukan aneka transaksi dalam kehidupan. Kita menggunakan bahsa lisan dan tulisan untuk mencapai berbagai tujuan dan untuk bersosialisasi. Wacana (texts) yang memiliki tujuan sosial yang sama dan memiliki banyak kesamaan ciri kebahasaan disebut genres atau text types. Secara umum, setiap jenis genre: memiliki tujuan dipengaruhi oleh budaya dimana bahasa tersebut digunakan memiliki bagian-bagian tertentu yang berurutan memiliki ciri-ciri gramatikal

Halliday (1994) menyebutkan bahwa ada tiga fungsi bahasa: 1. bahasa sebagai alat untuk mengungkapkan pengalaman-pengalaman kehidupan (the experiential function) E.g. Whats going on, whos involved and the surrounding circumstances. 2. bahasa sebagai alat untuk berinteraksi dengan sesama (the interpersonal function) E.g. the roles, relationships, feelings involved in interacting with others. 3. bahasa sebagai alat untuk menciptakan wacana yang baik (the textual function) E.g. the different modes and channels of communication Fungsi bahasa yang berbeda-beda erat hubungannya dengan bagian khusus dari sistem bahasa. Sistem bahasa adalah jejaring yang kompleks yang terdiri dari unsur-unsur grammatikal dan leksikal yang dipandang sebagai kotak peralatan (tool box) atau sebagai sumber untuk menciptakan arti (meaning). JENIS DAN TUJUAN KOMUNIKATIF TEKS Kita menggunakan jenis teks tertentu sesuai dengan tujuan sosial yang hendak kita capai sesuai dengan konteks tertentu, misalnya apakah kita berbicara dengan adik atau kakak kita di rumah atau kita berbicara dengan kepala sekolah dalam rapat sekolah. Jenis-jenis text memiliki tujuan yang berbeda-beda. Berikut ini contoh tujuan-tujuan social tersebut: memberi informasi menghibur menunjukkan suatu pendapat tertentu memesan makanan memberikan complain terhadap suatu jasa atau barang dan lain-lain Latihan 1 Lengkapilah tabel di bawah ini seperti contoh

Penggalan teks (PT)

Tujuan sosial PT

1.1. OK, well turn on the oven first 1.2 In conclusion, bikes should only be ridden on the footpath 1.3 A long, long time ago 1.4 After we visited the night market, we went home. 1.5 This leads to water pollution. Latihan 2

To instruct someone how to do something

Posisi PT dalam keseluruhan teks (awal, tengah, akhir?) Mengapa demikian? Beginning I know that when cooking you generally turn on the oven to start with so that its at the right temperature.

Berikut ini ada beberapa jenis teks. Tentukan kategori masing-masing teks dan tujuan sosialnya. 2.1. Jenis teks ______________________________________________________ Tujuan ________________________________________________________ I like to eat out and I go to a restaurant for dinner at least twice a month. I go with my friends or my family. Our favorite restaurant is an Indian restaurant in Cleveland Street in Surry Hills. It is not very big but it is always busy. There are only a few tables in the restaurant and there is a white tablecloth on each table. There is also a vase with lovely flowers on each table. There are plants in the corners. The place is very clean and well lighted so the customer can have a nice talk while enjoying their meal. Traditional Indian music can be heard softly from the room speakers. We usually order hot curries and eat them with rice. Its Chai tea is a winner! The food is delicious but the price is affordable. In addition, the service is quick and friendly. We always have a pleasant evening at this restaurant. 2.1. Jenis teks ______________________________________________________ Tujuan ________________________________________________________

The Eiffel Tower is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. The tower has become a global icon of France and is one of the most recognizable structures in the world. Named after its designer,tallest building in Paris More than 200,000,000 people have visited the tower since its construction in 1889, including 6,719,200 in 2006, making it the most visited paid monument in the world. Including the 24 m (79 ft) antenna, the structure is 325 m (1,063 ft) high (since 2000), which is equivalent to about 81 levels in a conventional building. When the tower was completed in 1889 it was the world's tallest tower a title it retained until 1930 when New York City's Chrysler Building (319 m 1,047 ft tall) was completed. The tower is now the fifth-tallest structure in France and the tallest structure in Paris, with the second-tallest being the Tour Montparnasse (210 m 689 ft), although that will soon be surpassed by Tour AXA (225.11 m 738.36 ft).

2.3. Jenis teks ______________________________________________________ Tujuan ________________________________________________________The Lion was in a bad mood. That morning his wife, the Lioness, had told him that his breath smelled. He was worried. Then, the Lion called his three counsellors - the Sheep, the Wolf and the Fox. First he called the Sheep. 'Tell me, Sheep,' growled the Lion, 'do you think my breath smells?' The Sheep thought the Lion wanted to know the truth. So she bowed low before the Lion and said, 'Your Majesty, your breath smells terrible. In fact, it smells so bad that it is making me feel quite ill.' This was not what the Lion had wanted to hear. Roaring angrily, and calling the Sheep a fool, he pounced on her and bit her head off. Next he called the Wolf. 'Tell me, Wolf,' growled the Lion sharpening his claws, 'do you think my breath smells?' The Wolf had seen the dead Sheep on the way, and he had no plans to end up the same way. He bowed low before the Lion and said, 'Your Majesty! How can you ask me that? Your breath smells as sweet as the flowers in spring, as fresh as the...' He could not finish what he was going to say. 'Liar!' roared the Lion, and ripped him to pieces. At last the Lion called the Fox. The Fox came warily; she had seen the dead Sheep and the dead Wolf on the way. 'Tell me, Fox,' growled the Lion, sharpening his claws and yawning widely so that the Fox could see his long sharp teeth, 'do you think my breath smells?' The Fox coughed and sneezed and blew her nose, and then clearing her throat noisily, said in a hoarse whisper, 'Your Majesty, forgive me. I have such a nasty cold that I cannot smell a thing!

2.4. Jenis teks ______________________________________________________ Tujuan ________________________________________________________Our bodies are made of flesh and bones. Anytime any part is injured we feel pain. So we try to avoid injury as much as we can. Usually it takes a painful lesson to teach us to avoid injury. The following was a particularly painful one. I, like any young child, love to run around as quickly as I can. It is fun. However, there is danger of falling down which can result in painful injuries. One day while playing "catching" with some friends I happened to run down a hill. I found that running down a hill was easy and I could go very fast. At the spur of the moment I decided to see how fast I could go. So I ran with all my might. Alas, I ran too fast for my legs to keep up. One moment I was running, the next I fell sprawling onto the tarmac road. The shock was horrible as I scraped along the hard surface of the road. The pain was intense as I lay on the road writhing. My hands, legs and face were bleeding from the many parts where my skin had been scraped off. When my friends came to help me they were horrified to see me in such a bloody mess. Anyhow they summoned help and I was taken to the hospital. There they cleaned and dressed my wounds. All the time I felt as though I was on fire. I suffered for two weeks thereafter every time they changed the bandages. It was terrible. I learned my lesson. It is foolish to run down a hill.

2.5. Jenis teks ______________________________________________________ Tujuan ________________________________________________________

2.6. Jenis teks ______________________________________________________ Tujuan ________________________________________________________ A rocket looks like a long tube. Most rockets have fins on the back end to help them fly straight. Rockets that carry fireworks can be short, only a few inches long. They are usually made of cardboard. Rockets that go into space are huge. They are made mostly of metal. Rockets burn fuel. Many different chemicals can be used as rocket fuel. The burning fuel makes hot gases. The gases blow out of the bottom end of the rocket. The hot gases shooting downward make the rocket go upward. People use rockets to carry things through air and space. Different kinds of rockets carry different things.

STRUKTUR KEBAHASAAN DAN PEMAHAMAN TEKS Kita mungkin sudah sangat mengenal klasifikasi kata menjadi golongan kata benda, kata kerja, kata keterangan, dan sebagainya. Akan tetapi, kata yang berdiri sendiri seringkali tidak membawa arti apapun. Namun bila kata tersebut digabungkan dengan kata-kata lain sehingga membentuk unit yang lebih besar, barulah kelompok kata tersebut memiliki arti sehingga dapat digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu. Dalam bahasa Inggris, unit dasar kelompok kata yang memiliki arti disebut dengan clause. Bagan berikut ini menunjukkan posisi clause dalam sebuah wacana:



Sari is a mining engineer. She works at an iron mine in West Kalimantan. She takes rock samples from various sites and tests them in a laboratory. The job is challenging but Sari enjoys working in the great outdoors.


sentence 1 sentence 2 sentence 3 sentence 4

clause clause clause clause clause clause

Sari is a mining engineer. She works at an iron mine in West Kalimantan. She takes rock samples from various sites and tests them in a laboratory. The job is challenging but Sari enjoys working in the great outdoors.