modul ajar 1 introduction hvac

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MODUL 1. HVAC Introduction MODUL AJAR - HVAC 4 1.1. Sub Kompetensi Kemampuan yang akan dimiliki oleh mahasiswa setelah memahami isi modul ini adalah sebagai berikut : Mahasiswa mengetahui ruang lingkup bahasan materi Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning (HVAC) Mahasiswa memahami prinsif kerja dasar dari kulkas (refrigerator) dan air conditioning (AC). Mahasiswa memahami prinsif kerja Water Chiller dan Oil cooler 1.2. Uraian Materi Setalah mempelajari konsep dasar thermodinamika (engineering thermodynamic) maka mahasiswa pada mata kuliah ini diharapkan mampu mengaplikasikan pada konsep dasar itu pada teknologi aplikasinya industri meliputi : 1. Water chiller dan Oil Cooler 2. Sistem refrigerator 3. Sistem air conditioning (AC) dan HVAC Pengenalan Sistem Pendingin dan HVAC Beberapa aplikasi sistem pendingin untuk kebutuhan manusia dan dunia industri Gambar 1. 1 Contoh Penerapan Thermodinamika khusunya pada sistem pendingin HVAC Sumber : Yunus A Cengel, 1994, “Thermodynamic, an Engineering Approach”

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Page 1: Modul ajar 1 introduction hvac

MODUL 1. HVAC Introduction

MODUL AJAR - HVAC 4

1.1. Sub Kompetensi

Kemampuan yang akan dimiliki oleh mahasiswa setelah memahami isi modul ini

adalah sebagai berikut :

Mahasiswa mengetahui ruang lingkup bahasan materi Heating Ventilating

Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Mahasiswa memahami prinsif kerja dasar dari kulkas (refrigerator) dan air

conditioning (AC).

Mahasiswa memahami prinsif kerja Water Chiller dan Oil cooler

1.2. Uraian Materi

Setalah mempelajari konsep dasar thermodinamika (engineering thermodynamic)

maka mahasiswa pada mata kuliah ini diharapkan mampu mengaplikasikan pada

konsep dasar itu pada teknologi aplikasinya industri meliputi :

1. Water chiller dan Oil Cooler

2. Sistem refrigerator

3. Sistem air conditioning (AC) dan HVAC

Pengenalan Sistem Pendingin dan HVAC

Beberapa aplikasi sistem pendingin untuk kebutuhan manusia dan dunia industri

Gambar 1. 1 Contoh Penerapan Thermodinamika khusunya pada sistem pendingin HVAC

Sumber : Yunus A Cengel, 1994, “Thermodynamic, an Engineering Approach”

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Water chiller and Oil Cooler

Gambar 1. 2 AHU-(air handlind Unit) , FCU (fan control unit), Water Chiller (warna biru = fase

liquid/cair dan warna merah dan ungu = fase vapor/uap)

Gambar 1. 3 Sistem refrigerasi / refrigerator

Komponen-komponen sistem refrigerasi :

Refrigerant

Receiver

Thermostatic expansion valve (TXV)

Evaporator

Compressor

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Condenser

Gambar 1. 4 Oil cooler (radiator) (sources: http://www.prcracing.com/oil-coolers.html)

Gambar 1. 5 sistem cool storage di sebuah kapal

Prinsif Kerja

Prinsif dasar dari mesin ini adalah proses pemindahan panas dari reservoir yang

bertemperatur tinggi ke rendah membutuhkan kerja yang perlu dimasukan dalam

sistem

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Gambar 1. 6 Proses Pemindahan panas dari reservoir temperature rendah ke tinggi

Proses Perpindahan Energi Panas

Gambar 1. 7 Thermal energy moves from left to right through five loops of heat transfer

Contoh aplikasi sistem pendingin pada unit yang besar :

Gambar 1. 8 ice skating field dan Cooling Piping (sources: www.kolomna-speed-skating.com/)

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Air Conditioning System

Sistem pengkondisian Udara untuk mendapatkan udara dengan kondisi dan kualitas

sesuai dengan kebutuhan teknis. Dimana kebutuhan meliputi kebutuhan untuk

kenyamanan manusia dan juga tujuan kebutuhan industri seperti teknologi

penyimpan (storage), farmasi, bahan kimia hingga industri persenjataan.

Macam-macam AC sistem :

Air Conditioning (for comfort / machine)

Split air conditioners

Fan coil units in a larger system

Air handling units in a larger system

Gambar 1. 9 AC window dan Split air conditioners

Sistem Refrigerasi

Sistem pendinginan pada industri yang digunakan untuk tujuan teknologi proses

pengolahan (contohnya chilling plants) dan kebutuhan domestik (contohnya

refrigerators), Sistem refrigerasi dapat dibedakan berdasarkan besar kemampuan

kapasitasnya pendinginannya dengan satuan TOR (Ton of Refrigeration). TOR

adalah satuan untuk kapasitas kemampuan proses pendinginan mengacu pada panas

yang mampu dipindahkan dari material yang didinginkan yg besarnya setara dengan

efek pendinginan yang diakibatkan oleh 1 ton es bersuhu 32oF (0

0C) yang meleleh

(berubaha fase solid menjadi liquid) selama 24 jam. 1 TOR akan memiliki nilai

setara dengan 12.000 BTU/hour atau 3517 watts.

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Kapasitas pendinginan sistem refrigerasi berdasarkan kemampuan kapasitas

pendinginannya :

1. Unit Kapasitas kecil < 50 TOR

Unit refrigerasi dengan kapasitas kecil untuk memenuhi kebutuhan domestic

2. Unit Kapasitas medium antara 50 < TOR < 250

Instalasi air pendingin dengan sistem terpusat (Centralized chilled water

plants) menggunakan air pendingin sebagai refrigerant sekunder dengan

temperatur dengan range diatas.

3. Unit Kapasitas besar > 250 TOR

Instalasi pendingin terpusat dengan kapasitas pendinginan besar dengan

menggunakan refrigerant pendingin sekunder larutan anti beku (brine plant)

sehingga bisa mencapai temperature lebih rendah dari 00C. Industri yang

besar akan memiliki beberapa unit pendingin antara lain yang berada diluar

diluar gedung (off site) antara lain:

1. Chilled water pumps,

2. Condenser water pumps,

3. Cooling towers,

Gambar 1. 10 Condenser water pumps (sources www.tempest-eng.com)

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Gambar 1. 11 Cooling Tower (sources: http://powerwash.ms/industrial-projects)

Pada satu industri bisa dimungkin akan memiliki 2 sampai 3 level instalasi

sistem refrigenerasi dan pengkondisian udara dengan beberapa kombinasi

kondisi operasi, antara beberapa contoh kombinasi antara lain :

1. Comfort air conditioning (20 – 250C)

2. Chilled water system (8 – 100C)

Plant air dingin yang terpusat dengan memanfaatkan air dingin

sebagai refrigeran sekundernya untuk kisaran suhu diatas 8-

100C.

3. Brine system (sub-zero applications)

Plant air garam (brine), yang menggunakan air garam untuk

suhu yang lebih rendah, refrigeran sekunder untuk penerapan

suhu sub-nol, yang kemudian menjadi kapasitas unit dan

kapasitas plant yang terpusat.

1.3. Rangkuman

TOR (Ton of Refrigeration).

BTU (British thermal unit).

AHU (Air Handling Unit)

FCU (Fan control unit)

1.4. Referensi

1. Yunus A Cengel, 1994, “Thermodynamic, an Engineering Approach”

2. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals [1972]

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3. Harrington RL., ‘Marine Engineering Hand Book’, SNAME, Jersey City,

1992

4. Stoecker WF., Jerrold W., Supratman H.,’ Teknik Pendingin dan

Pengkondisian Udara’, Edisi 2, Erlangga, Jakarta

5. William G., Neil RP. ‘Trane Air Conditioning Manual’

6. Wiranto AM., Heizo S.,’Penyegaran Udara’, Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta

1995

1.5. Latihan Soal

Tugas Terstruktur 01

1. Dengan melihat diagram pada Water Chiller dan Refrigerator diatas, Coba

jelaskan fungsi-fungsi dari peralatan dibawah ini :

a) compressor

b) condenser

c) receiver

d) solenoid valve

e) therma expansion valve

f) thermal bulb

g) chiller condenser

h) chill water pump

i) cooling coil

j) thermostat

k) tempeature switch

l) expansion tank

2. Berdasarkan gambar refrigerator jelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan :

a. Suction line

b. discharge line

c. low side

d. high side

3. Sebuah Pelabuhan membutuhkan 2 unit AHU dimana unit 1 membutuhkan

daya pendinginan 12 BTU/min dan unit 2 membutuhkan daya pendinginan 8,2

kW. Berapa daya TOR mesin pendingin total yang harus di-install ?

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1.6. Lembar Kerja

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