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    SUGENG TRIUTOMO

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    BENCANA

    TANGGAP

    DARURAT

    PEMULIHAN

    KESIAPSIAGAAN

    PENCEGAHAN

    MITIGASI

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    Pencegahandan Mitigasi

    Kesiapsiagaan

    Pemulihan

    TanggapDarurat

    BENCANA

    MANAJEMEN BENCANA

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    Tanggap

    Darurat

    Pasca

    Darurat

    Pencegahan &

    Mitigasi

    Kesiapsiagaan

    Kajian Darurat

    Bantuan Darurat

    Rehabilitasi

    Penuntasan

    Pembangunan Kembali

    Perencanaan Siaga

    Peringatan dini

    Pengkajian

    Koordinasi

    Manajemen Informasi

    Mobilisasi Sumberdaya

    Keterkaitan Nas & IntlPerencanaan Kesiapan

    Pemulihan

    Pencegahan

    Mitigasi

    Rencana Operasional

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    Increase

    access of

    vulnerable

    group to power

    and resources

    Challenges any

    ideology,

    politics or

    economicsystem

    Development of:

    -education

    -training-skill

    -local market

    -people

    participation

    Micro forces:

    -health

    -manage

    urbanization

    - credit/loan

    Protected

    environment:

    - Improve rules,

    codes- Strengthen

    existing

    building

    - Review land

    use planning

    Public action:

    - Improve

    disasterplanning

    - Preparedness

    Prevention

    Mitigation

    Relocation

    Reduce

    Hazard

    Achieve

    Safe

    Condition

    Reduce

    Risk

    Reduce

    Pressure

    - No loss

    of life

    - Fewcasualti

    es

    Address

    root cause

    Release Model

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    The outright avoidance of adverse impacts of hazards andrelated disasters.

    Prevention (i.e. disaster prevention) expresses the conceptand intention to completely avoid potential adverse impacts

    through action taken in advance. Examples include dams orembankments that eliminate flood risks, land-useregulations that do not permit any settlement in high riskzones, and seismic engineering designs that ensure thesurvival and function of a critical building in any likelyearthquake. Very often the complete avoidance of losses is

    not feasible and the task transforms to that of mitigation.Partly for this reason, the terms prevention and mitigationare sometimes used interchangeably in casual use.

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    The set of capacities needed to generate and disseminatetimely and meaningful warning information to enableindividuals, communities and organizations threatened by ahazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficienttime to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.

    This definition encompasses the range of factors necessaryto achieve effective responses to warnings. A people-centred early warning system necessarily comprises fourkey elements: knowledge of the risks; monitoring, analysisand forecasting of the hazards; communication ordissemination of alerts and warnings; and local capabilities

    to respond to the warnings received. The expression end-toend warning systemis also used to emphasize that warningsystems need to span all steps from hazard detectionthrough to community response.

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    The systematic process of using administrative directives,organizations, and operational skills and capacities toimplement strategies, policies and improved copingcapacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazardsand the possibility of disaster.

    Comment: This term is an extension of the more general termriskmanagementto address the specific issue of disasterrisks. Disaster risk management aims to avoid, lessen ortransfer the adverse effects of hazards through activities andmeasures for prevention, mitigation and preparedness.Disaster risk reduction The concept and practice of

    reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyseand manage the causal factors of disasters, includingthrough reduced exposure to

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    The systematic approach and practice of managinguncertainty to minimize potential harm and loss.

    Comment: Risk management comprises riskassessment and analysis, and the implementation ofstrategies and specific actions to control, reduce andtransfer risks. It is widely practiced by organizationsto minimise risk in investment decisions and toaddressoperational risks such as those of businessdisruption, production failure, environmentaldamage, social impacts and damage from fire and

    natural hazards. Risk management is a core issue forsectors such as water supply, energy and agriculturewhose production is directly affected by extremes ofweather and climate.

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    A methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk byanalysing potential hazards and evaluating existingconditions of vulnerability that together could potentiallyharm exposed people, property, services, livelihoods andthe environment on which they depend.

    Risk assessments (and associated risk mapping) include: areview of the technical characteristics of hazards such astheir location, intensity, frequency and probability; theanalysis of exposure and vulnerability including thephysical social, health, economic and environmentaldimensions; and the evaluation of the effectiveness of

    prevailing and alternative coping capacities in respect tolikely risk scenarios. This series of activities is sometimesknown as a risk analysis process.

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    The process of formally or informally shifting the financial consequencesof particular risks from one party to another whereby a household,community, enterprise or state authority will obtain resources from theother party after a disaster occurs, in exchange for ongoing orcompensatory social or financial benefits provided to that other party.Insurance is a well-known form of risk transfer, where coverage of a risk isobtained from an insurer in exchange for ongoing premiums paid to theinsurer. Risk transfer can occur informally within family and communitynetworks where there are reciprocal expectations of mutual aid by meansof gifts or credit, as well as formally where governments, insurers, multi-lateral banks and other large risk-bearing entities establish mechanismsto help cope with losses in major events. Such mechanisms includeinsurance and re-insurance contracts, catastrophe bonds, contingentcredit facilities and reserve funds, where the costs are covered by

    premiums, investor contributions, interest rates and past savings,respectively.

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    The provision of emergency services and publicassistance during or immediately after a disasterin order to save lives, reduce health impacts,ensure public safety and meet the basic

    subsistence needs of the people affected.Disaster response is predominantly focused onimmediate and short-term needs and issometimes called disaster relief. The divisionbetween this response stage and the subsequent

    recovery stage is not clear-cut. Some responseactions, such as the supply of temporary housingand water supplies, may extend well into therecovery stage.

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    Reinforcement or upgrading of existingstructures to become more resistant andresilient to the damaging effects of hazards.Retrofitting requires consideration of the

    design and function of the structure, thestresses that the structure may be subject tofrom particular hazards or hazard scenarios,and the practicality and costs of different

    retrofitting options. Examples of retrofittinginclude adding bracing to stiffen walls,reinforcing pillars, adding steel tiesbetween walls and roofs, installing shutterson windows, and improving the protectionof important facilities and equipment.

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    The ability of a system, community or societyexposed to hazards to resist, absorb,accommodate to and recover from the effects of ahazard in a timely and ef