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Hukum Romawi Hukum Romawi telah mempengaruhi perkembangan hukum dalam peradaban barat.Hukum romawi menjadi dasar peraturan perundang-undangan di negara-negara eropa kontinental. Pembabakan Kerajaan Roma: VIII-VII (753-509) SM/BC/BCE Republik Roma: (509-27) SM/BC/BCEKekaisaran Roma: (27-476 M/AD/CE)
Kerajaan Roma (753-509)753716 BC Romulus715673 BC Numa Pompilius673642 BC Tullus Hostilius640616 BC Ancus Marcius616579 BC L. Tarquinius Priscus578535 BC Servius Tullius535509 BC L. Tarquinius Superbus
Raja diusulkan senat, dinobatkan setelah disetujui oleh kekuatan keagamaan, politik dan kerakyatan. Raja merangkap sebagai kepala alim ulama (pontitex maximus)Belum ada undang-undang, hukum berdasarkan kebiasaanSekitar 575 SM kaum Etruskia menduduki lebih dari satu abad. Sejak saat itu Raja Romawi berasal dari keturunan Etruskia. Republik Roma 509-27 SM
Albania,Algeria, Andorra,Austria, Belgium, Bosnia an Herzegovina, Bulgaria,Croatia,Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy Jordan, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Libya, Luxembourg,Macedonia, Malta MonacoMontenegro,Netherlands, Portugal,Palestine, Israel, San Marino, Saudi Arabia,Serbia,Slovenia,Spain,Switzerland,Syria,Tunisia,Turkey,Vatican City.
Dominasi dan kekuatan raja melemah.Runtuhnya Monarkhi diperkirakan 470 SM (Gillisen&Gorle) SPQR (Senatus Populusque Romanus)/The Senat and People of Rome. Undang Undang (lex) mulai dikenal.Undang-Undang yang terkenal adalah UU duabelas prasasti/lex XII tabularum/Law of the twelve tables
The Law of Twelve Tables (451-450 SM)Dipercaya sebagai legislasi tertulis pertama di yang mendasari Roman Law.Dirumuskan oleh 10 commissioners (decemvirs) atas desakan kelompok plebeian yang sering mendapatkan perlakuan sewenang-wenang Patrician. Dibuat dari perunggu, diletakan di ruang terbuka (forum) 390 SM musnah saat Roma dijarah bangsa Gallia.Usaha penyusunan kembali dimungkinkan berkat adanya kutipan-kutipan yang dibuat Cicero yang diambil dari Digesten (Salah satu jilid kodifikasi Justinianus) Israel Drapkin has noted that the Twelve Tables (449 BCE) marked a transition from private retribution to state adjudication. Though during this period, there was still no clear boundary between public and private law, criminal matters were regulated in accordance with the eighth and ninth tables, which Drapkin, suggests was the embryonic form of the public law/criminal law divide. (Israel Drapkin M D, Crime and Punishment in the Ancient World (Lexington Books 1989) 232).
Twelve TablesTable I. Proceedings Preliminary to TrialIf the plaintiff summons the defendant to court the defendant shall go. If the defendant does not go the plaintiff shall call a witness thereto. Only then the plaintiff shall seize the defendant.
6. When the parties agree on the matter the magistrate shall announce it.8. If one of the parties does not appear the magistrate shall adjudge the case, after noon, in favor of the one present.9. If both parties are present sunset shall be the time limit of the proceedings.
Table II. Trial5. If anyone commits a theft during the day, and is caught in the act, he shall be scourged, and given up as a slave to the person against whom the theft was committed. If he who perpetrated the theft is a slave, he shall be beaten with rods and hurled from the Tarpeian Rock.If he is under the age of puberty, the Prtor shall decide whether he shall be scourged, and surrendered by way of reparation for the injury.
8. When anyone accuses and convicts another of theft which is not manifest, and no stolen property is found, judgment shall be rendered to compel the thief to pay double the value of what was stolen.
9.Where anyone secretly cuts down trees belonging to another, he shall pay twenty-fiveassesfor each tree cut down
Table III. Execution of Judgment
Table IV. Paternal Power1. A father shall have the right of life and death over his son born in lawful marriage, and shall also have the power to render him independent, after he has been sold three times
2. If a father sells his son three times, the latter shall be free from paternal authority.Table V. Inheritance and Guardianship
2. Where a father dies intestate, without leaving any proper heir, his nearest agnate, or, if there is none, the next of kin among his family, shall be his heir.
4. When a creditor or a debtor dies, his heirs can only sue, or be sued, in proportion to their shares in the estate; and any claims, or remaining property, shall be divided among them in the same proportion.
Table VI. Ownership and Possession
2.Where a slave is ordered to be free by a will, upon his compliance with a certain condition, and he complies with the condition; or if, after having paid his price to the purchaser, he claims his liberty, he shall be free.
10. If a husband desires to divorce his wife, and dissolve his marriage, he must give a reason for doing so.
Table VII. Real Property
Table VIII. Torts or Delicts
2. If anyone has broken another's limb there shall be retaliation in kind unless he compounds for compensation with him.5. ... One has broken ... One shall make amends.
12. If a thief commits a theft by night, if the owner kills the thief, the thief shall be killed lawfully.
Table IX. Public Law6. For anyone whomsoever to be put to death without a trial and unconvicted ... is forbidden.
Table X. Sacred Law
I. An oath shall have the greatest force and effect, for the purpose of compelling good faith.
3. A dead person shall not be buried or burned in the city
Table XI. Supplementary Laws1. ... There shall not be intermarriage between plebeians and patricians
Table XII. Supplementary Laws