genre, ragam teks dan peruntukannya

Click here to load reader

Post on 07-Mar-2015

1.226 views

Category:

Documents

13 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Genre, ragam teks dan peruntukannyaTeks membentuk wacana . Wacana yang terwujud dalam suatu teks memiliki tujuan komunikatif. Berdasatkan tujuan komunikatif yang hendak dicapai, teks dikelompokkan ke dalam berbagai jenis. Untuk mencapai tujuan komunikatif tersebut, teks disusun dengan struktur tertentu dan direalisasikan dengan ciri-ciri bahasa tertentu. Struktur suatu teks yang satu dengan yang lain tidak selalu sama, melainkan bervariasi. Dalam mencapai tujuannya, suatu jenis teks lazimnya memiliki unsur minimal. Misalnya, sebuah resep memasak setidak-tidaknya akan menyodorkan unsur bahan dan cara membuat. Unsur lain seperti cara menyajikan dapat pula diulas, akan tetapi ini tidak ahrus adakarena merupakan unsur tambahan. Unsur minimal inilah yang membuahkan ragam teks. Di bawah ini dikupas ragamragam teks beserta perntukkannya dan unsur minimal yang dimilikinya.

DescriptionTeks description bertujuan untuk menggambarkan seseorang, sesuatu, suatu tempat, seekor binatang. Teks description meng-highlight satu orang/benda/tempat/binatang secara khusus. Teks description menyodorkan banyak informasi tentang orang/benda/tempat/binatang tertentu secara gamblang, [sering] rinci, [acapkali] dapat divisualisasikan. Teks description umumnya memiliki struktur: - identification, pengenalan subjek atau hal yang akan dideskripsikan. - description, penginformasian ciri-ciri subjekmisalnya sifat-sifat psikologis, perilaku, tampilan fisik, fitur-fitur khas, kualitas, dan sejenisnya. Teks description sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - noun yang spesifik, misalnya father, school, my dog, dll. - simple present tense - detailed noun phrase, kata benda yang mendapatkan perian kata sifat, misalnya: an intelligent tall student perian noun a big large beautiful wooden house perian noun - beragam jenis adjective yang bersifat describing, numbering, calssifying; misalnya: three tall buldings sharp white fang - relational process, menggunakan kata kerja yang dapat menggambarkan keadaan participant, dan atau mengisyaratkan kepemillikan. My car has four doors. My father is really handsome. - figurative language, menggunakan bahasa figurative seperti simile atau metapor sebagai cara untuk memberi ilustrasi perbandingan My throat is as dry as a dessert. Her skin is white as cloud, and smooth as water.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

15

Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Contoh:

Lyme Regis is a beautiful old seaside town, with a lively little harbour, beaches, and lovely walks, either by the sea or in the country nearby. For children there is the Marine Aquarium and Dinosaur land, and in summer you can escape from the crowds and relax in the Jane Austen Gardens with beautiful views over the sea. There are many interesting old streets

My Toy I have a toy. It is a doll, a bear doll, and I call it Teddy. Teddy Bear is an American origin. My dad bought it as a present for my tenth birthday anniversay last year. The doll is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Because my Teddy bear is a doll, I dont need to feed it. I wash it at the loundry at least once a month. Every night Teddy accompanies me sleeping. When I am at school, Teddy stays in my bed. Teddy Bear is really a nice, adorable, and charming toy. I love my Teddy Bear very much.

My Best Friend I have a lot of friends. But, my closest friend is Prabu Perdana. Prabu is my classmate. He is so handsome and cute. He has short wavy but rather blonde hair, which is always combed neatly. His skin is white. He has bluish back eyes with thick eyebrows and outstanding eyelashes. His round face makes him more impressive. Although Prabu is not so tall, he has a well-built body. People frequently think he is a European or American offspring, but he is actually a Sundanese genuine. He looks more handsome when he is smiling. Prabu is a pleasing peer. I am happy to spend my time with him. He is always available to help his friends who are in trouble. He is never angry with any friends who try to annoy him. Because he is so smart, most of his classmates seek him to explain any difficulties in any school subjects. I am proud of having such best friend.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

16

Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

ReportTeks report mengupas suatu hasil pengamatan, penelaahan, penelitian, observasi, atau studi tentang benda, binatang, orang, atau tempat. Participant pada report cenderung general. Data yang tersaji umumnya berupa simpulan umum akan karakteristik, ciri, dan atau keberadaan dan keadaan participant. Tujuan teks report adalah untuk menggambarkan participant apa adanya. Bila yang dibicarakan suatu benda, teks report lebih menyoroti fungsi dari benda tersebut. Teks report lazimnya menyodorkan suatu generalisasi akan participant yang diulas; generalisasi ini umumnya didapat lewat membandingkan yang satu dengan yang lain yang tergolong participant sejenis. Teks report umumnya memiliki struktur: - general classification, pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya. - description, penginformasian ciri-ciri umum/generalisasi yang dimiliki subjekmisalnya sifatsifat psikologis, perilaku, tampilan fisik, fitur-fitur khas, kualitas, dan sejenisnya. Teks report sering menggunakan unsur kebahasaan tertentu, antara lain: - general noun, kata yang merujuk pada sesuatu secara umum; misalnya: Tigers are wild animals. (harimau yang mana saja) Birds can fly. (burung manapun). - relational process, menggunakan kata kerja yang dapat menggambarkan keadaan participant, dan atau mengisyaratkan kepemillikan. Birds have wings. An elephant is a big animal. - simple present tense, untuk menyatakan suatu kebenaran umum atau fakta ilmiah. A baby of the blue whale generally weighs more than 500 kilograms. Contoh:

Snakes are reptiles. These cold-blooded creatures belong to the same group as lizards. Snakes have no legs, but a long time ago they had claws to help them slitter along. Snakes often sunbathe on rocks in the warm weather. This is because snakes are cold-blooded and they need the suns warmth to heat their body up. Most snakes live in the country. Some types of snakes live in trees, some live in water, but most live on the ground in thick, long grass and in old logs.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

17

Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

The sense of taste is one of a person's five senses. We taste with the help of taste-buds in the tongue. There are four main kinds of taste: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. All other tastes are just mixtures of two or more of these main types. The surface of the tongue has more than fifteen thousand taste-buds (or cells). These are connected to the brain by special nerves which send the so-called 'tastes messages.' When the tongue comes into contact with food of any kind, the tastebuds will pick up the taste. The nerves then send a message to the brain. This will make us aware of the taste. All this happens in just a few seconds. There are four kinds of taste-buds, each of which is sensitive to only a particular taste. These four groups are located in different parts of the tongue. The taste-buds for salty and sweet tastes are found round the tip of the tongue and along its sides. Sour tastes can be picked up only at the sides of the tongue. The taste-buds for the bitter taste are found at the innermost edge of the tongue. There are taste-buds at the centre of the tongue. The senses of smell and sight can affect taste. The good smell of food increases its taste. Similarly, attractive colours can make food appear tastier and more delicious. If food does not smell good or is dull-coloured, it will look tasty and may not taste good at all. Very hot or cold sensations can make the taste-buds insensitive. Food that is too hot or too cold, when placed in the mouth, will have no tastes at all.

The white pelican is one of the most successful fish-eating birds. The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two-dozen birds, will gather in a curved area some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. As the birds lift their head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds, fossils of this genus have been found dating back 400 million years.

Genre,Ragam Teks dan Peruntukannya

18

Otong Setiawan Djuharie

Genre

Description Vs ReportAcapkali jenis teks desciptive dan report memiliki persamaan, dan juga perbedaan. Persamaannya adalah keduanya dapat menggambarkan benda/binatang/orang/tempat, serta keduanya banyak menggunakan relational process. Perbedaanya dapat dilihat atau dikaji dari salah satu atau gabungan sudut pandang seperti terpetakan dalam bagan berikut: Descriptive specifik, tertentu Participant Data/informasi: untuk tahu tidak perlu pengamatan, sekali ciri/keadaan participant lihat langsung tahu tidak menggunakan jargon Language ilmiah Perhatikan komparasi berikut: My Pet I have a pet. It is a dog and I call it Brownie. Brownie is a Chinese breed. It is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Brownie does not like bones. Every day it eats soft food like steamed rice, fish or bread. Every morning I give her milk and bread. When I am at school, Brownie plays with my cat. They get along well, and never fight maybe because Brownies does not bark a lot. It treats the other animals in our house. descriptive For many years

View more