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Mikrobiologi Dasar (Fundamental Microbiology)Endang S. Rahayu Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Jadwal Kuliah Mikrobiologi Dasar Semester II Th. 2005/2006Minggu 1 Isi Kuliah Pendahuluan : definisi dan aspek mikrobiologi; tujuan mempelajari mikrobiologi; sejarah mikrobiologi; mikrobiologi dan lingkungan; mikrobiologi sebagai ilmu dasar dan aplikasinya. Evolusi, sistematik, dan taksonomi mikrobia, penggolongan organisme dan taksonomi mikrobia : sistim 2-, 3-, 5- kingdoms; prokariot dan eukariot; taksonomi modern (pilogeni) Struktur sel : komponen-komponen sel dan fungsinya; perbedaan prokariot dan eukariot; membran sitoplasma, dinding sel, membran luar Gram negatif; Struktur internal (organel), flagella, pili, cilia, fimbriae, glycocalyx; bentuk dorman dari mikrobia (spora dan kista) Dosen ESR

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Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Jadwal Kuliah Mikrobiologi Dasar Semester II Th. 2005/20064 Pertumbuhan mikrobia : pertumbuhan sel dan reproduksi; populasi mikrobia; cara pengukuran pertumbuhan; siklus pertumbuhan; factor lingkungan yang berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan (oksigen, pH, air/ aktivitas air, suhu Metabolisme : proses yang menghasilkan energi (energi kimiawi dan transfer energi, fosforilasi, jalur-jalur degradasi: nutrient komplek, glikolisa, regenerasi NAD, fermentasi dan respirasi); Proses yang membutuhkan energi (biosintesa komponen nitrogen, biosintesa karbohidrat, biosintesa lipida) Genetika mikrobia : Informasi genetik, replikasi, transkripsi, dan translasi ESR

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Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Lecture 1 Introduction to microbiology What is microbiology Why study microbiology The Historical Foundations of Microbiology Abiogenesis Biogenesis The golden age of microbiology Anthrax & BioterrorismEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

What is Microbiology? The science of microorganisms (very small, unicellular organisms) The discipline is just over a century old Has given rise to molecular biology and biotechnology

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

What are Microbes?

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Sel Prokariot

Sel Eukariot

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Sel prokariot dan eukariot

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Why study Microbiology (1)? Microorganisms were the first life on earth Microorganisms created the biosphere that allowed multicellular organisms to evolve Multicellular organisms evolved from microorganisms >50% of the biomass on earth is comprised of microorganisms Microorganisms will be on earth foreverEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

First microorganisms?

Earth formed

Cyanobacterial microfossils (oxygenic photosynthesis)

Formation of O2 atmosphere

algae, marine invertebrates

insects mammals

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No free O2 Reducing environment

BYA

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

All cells of the present time organisms share a common ancestor

Endang S. Rahayu An evolutionary phylogenetic tree

Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Why study Microbiology (2)? Our understanding of life has arisen largely from studies of microorganisms (biochemistry and genetics) Studies of microorganisms continue to contribute to fundamental knowledge of life processes

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Figure 1.4

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Why study Microbiology (3)? Health Agriculture Food Environment

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

The Historical Foundations of Microbiology The Development of the Microscope The Debate over Spontaneous Generation Redi Needham Spallanzani Virchow Pasteur Endang S. RahayuFak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

History of Microbiology Robert Hooke- First person to peer into the microbial Hookeworld, used compound lenses (1664) Anton van Leeuwenhoek- First true microbiologist, LeeuwenhoekDutch -Simple Microscope single lens microscopes capable of 300 to 500X (1632 - 1723) drew and published (Proceeding of the Royal Society in London) accurate pictures microscopic algae, protozoa, bacteria, demonstrated wee beasties (wee animalcules)Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Spontaneous Generation Spontaneous Generation- the idea that life Generationarose from non-living matter - Abiogenesis non Aristotle (384-322 BC) believed some simpler (384invertebrates could arise by spontaneous generation

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Spontaneous Generation Debate Francesco Redi (1626-1697) (1626 belief at the time- maggots spontaneously timearose from rotting meat demonstrated that maggots were dependent on the presence of fly eggs and of rotting meatEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Controversy Continues Leeuwenhoeks discovery added fuel to the controversy Some proposed microorganisms could arise from spontaneous generation even if higher organisms did not They pointed out that boiled extracts of hay and meat could give rise to microorganismsEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Spontaneous Generation (continued debate) In 1748, English Priest John Needham reported the results of his experiments boiled mutton broth and then tightly sealed the flask eventually many of the sealed flask became cloudy with microorganisms he proposed that organic matter possessed a vital force that could give rise to lifeEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Spontaneous Generation disproved Lazzaro Spallanzani - improved on Needhams experimental design first- sealed seeds and water in glass flask first second- boiled them second no growth took place as long as the flasks remained sealed proposed that air carried microbes to the cultureEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Controversy finally settled 1859, one of the fathers of modern microbiology, Louis Pasteur offered strong evidence against Spontaneous Generation Pasteur was a chemist by training but became interested in biology during his early studies on fermentations. At that time virtually nothing was known about microorganisms except that they existed (this was discovered by Anton van Leeuwenhoek using homehomemade microscopes in 1684). It was known that microorganisms could be found in decaying matter but it was not clear what role they were playing in the decomposition process.Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) (1822"Do not put forward anything that you cannot prove by experimentation"

Drew out the necks of flasks so that they remained open to the air added broth and boiled it to destroy any microbes present flasks were incubated for months and remained sterileEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Pasteurs Swan Neck Flask Experiment

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

The Golden Age of Microbiology Fermentation and Pasteurization Pasteur The Germ Theory of Disease Agostino Bassi and Pasteur Joseph Liter Robert Koch Vaccination Edward Jenner PasteurEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Rapid Advances 1857 -1914 Rudolf Virchow introduced the concept of biogenesis: living cells can arise only from preexisting cells (1857). Louis Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms are in the air everywhere and offered proof of biogenesis (1861). Agostino Bassi (1835) and Pasteur (1865) showed a causal relationship between microorganisms and disease.Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Pasteurs Contributions to Science 1800- French Government (Napoleon III) 1800enlisted his help in their Wine Industry showed the decline in quality was due to a contaminating microbe process of pasteurization

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Pasteurs Contributions to Science Recognized that chickens became immune to a bacterial pathogen if injected with a weaken avirulent strain. Developed vaccines against rabies and anthrax

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Pasteurs perplexing problem while working on spontaneous generation he experienced an anomaly no matter how long some flasks were boiled, they always produced growth German botanist-Ferdinand Cohn discovered botanistthe existence of heat resistant bacterial spores Pasteur reasoned that the flask that produced growth contained heat resistant bacterial sporesEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

English physicist John Tyndall dealt the absolute final blow to Spontaneous Generation and resolved Pasteurs problem, he demonstrated the dust did indeed carry microbes and if the dust were absent, the broth remained sterile. He developed the process of tyndallization which is fractional steam sterilization similar to the process we use today in the lab.Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

The Recognition of the Microbial Role in Disease Agostino Bassi (1835) linked a microorganism to disease

Pasteur (1865) disease of silkworms

Endang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

The Recognition of the Microbial Role in Disease Joseph Lister English surgeon developed