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  • ENERGY METABOLISM

    Dr.Katrin Roosita, MSi.

  • METABOLISME ENERGI……

  • Fig 1. METABOLISM

    (Courtesy: Rimbawan, 2007)

  • Organ utama

    pengaturan

    metabolisme: hati,

    jaringan lemak

    (adipose), otot , dan

    otak.

    Peran: penyimpanan,

    penggunaan dan

    penyediaan sumber

    energi (substrat).

  • SISTEM PENGATURAN

    METABOLISME

     Sistem Hormon

     Sistem Saraf

     Ketersediaan

    Substrat

  • Hubungan

    substrat – hormon- sistem

    saraf

     Substrat (glukosa dan protein)

    mempengaruhi sekresi hormon

     Hormon dan sistem saraf mengatur

    metabolisme dan transport substrat.

  • HORMON UTAMA METABOLISME

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/

    homeostasis_2a.pdf

    1 mmol/L = 18 g/dL

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • Penurunan Kadar glukosa darah & sekresi hormon

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • Fungsi insulin di sel target

    en.wikipedia.org

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • CONTOH:

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • Aktivitas insulin di Sel Target

  • Ketersediaan Substrat

     Berbeda antara kondisi:

    - post absorpsi

    - puasa/starvation

    - olahraga berat

    - terjadi gangguan metabolisme dan kondisi

    sakit.

  • ABSORPTIVE STATE

    2 - 4 HOURS period after

    ingestion of a normal meal :

    ABSORPTIVE STATE

    INCREASES in plasma glucose, amino acids, and

    triacylglycerols

    baby-growths.com

  • lipogenesis

  • MECHANISMS OF HEPATIC- AMINO ACID

    METABOLISM (in the absorptive period)

    The surplus amino acids ARE NOT STORED, but are either:

    a. released into the blood for all tissues to use in

    protein synthesis,

    b. they are with the resulting carbon skeletons being

    degraded by the liver pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or TCA

    cycle intermediates, these metabolites can be

    oxidized for energy or used in fatty acid synthesis.

  • METABOLISM OF

    ADIPOSE TISSUE

    in Absorptive State

    A. Carbohydrate metabolism

    1. Increased glucose transport

    2. Increased glycolysis:.

    3. Increased activity in the hexose monophosphate (HMP) pathway.

  • B. Fat Metabolism

    1. Increased synthesis of fatty

    acids.

    2. Increased triacylglycerol

    synthesis

    3. Decreased triacylglycerol

    degradation

  • METABOLISM OF RESTING MUSCLE

    in absorptive State

    1. Increased glucose transport

    2. Increased glycogen synthesis 3. Increased protein synthesis 4. Increased uptake of branched-chain amino acids.

  • METABOLISM OF BRAIN IN

    ABSORPTIVE STATE

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Principal metabolic pathways during the

    absorptive state

  • AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE TRIGLYCERIDES

    (in chylomicrons)

    Blood

    GLUCOSE

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    + H2O +CO2

    MOST TISSUES

    Oxidation

    ATP

    1

    AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE TRIGLYCERIDES

    (in chylomicrons)

    Blood

    GLUCOSE

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    HEPATOCYTES IN LIVER

    + H2O +CO2

    MOST TISSUES

    Oxidation

    ATP

    Fatty acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate Glycogen

    Glucose

    + H2O +CO2 ATP

    1

    2

    AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE TRIGLYCERIDES

    (in chylomicrons)

    Blood

    GLUCOSE

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    HEPATOCYTES IN LIVER

    + H2O +CO2

    MOST TISSUES

    Oxidation

    ATP

    Triglycerides

    ADIPOSE TISSUE

    VLDLs

    Triglycerides

    Fatty acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate Glycogen

    Glucose

    + H2O +CO2 ATP

    1

    2

    3

    AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE TRIGLYCERIDES

    (in chylomicrons)

    Blood

    GLUCOSE

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    GLUCOSE

    HEPATOCYTES IN LIVER

    SKELETAL

    MUSCLE

    Storage

    + H2O +CO2

    MOST TISSUES

    Oxidation

    ATP

    Triglycerides

    ADIPOSE TISSUE

    VLDLs

    Fatty

    acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate

    Glucose

    Fatty acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate Glycogen

    Glucose

    GlycogenGlycogen

    + H2O +CO2 ATP

    1

    2

    3

    4

    4

    AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE TRIGLYCERIDES

    (in chylomicrons)

    Blood

    GLUCOSE

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    GLUCOSE

    HEPATOCYTES IN LIVER

    SKELETAL

    MUSCLE

    Storage

    + H2O +CO2

    MOST TISSUES

    Oxidation

    ATP

    Triglycerides

    ADIPOSE TISSUE

    VLDLs

    Triglycerides

    Fatty

    acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate

    Glucose

    Fatty acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate Glycogen

    Glucose

    GlycogenGlycogen

    + H2O +CO2 ATP

    1

    2

    3

    4 5

    4

    AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE TRIGLYCERIDES

    (in chylomicrons)

    Blood

    GLUCOSE

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    GLUCOSE

    HEPATOCYTES IN LIVER

    SKELETAL

    MUSCLE

    Storage

    + H2O +CO2

    MOST TISSUES

    Oxidation

    ATP

    Triglycerides

    ADIPOSE TISSUE

    VLDLs

    Triglycerides

    Fatty

    acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate

    Glucose

    Keto acids

    Fatty acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate Glycogen

    Glucose

    GlycogenGlycogen

    + H2O +CO2 ATP

    1

    2

    3

    4 5

    6

    4

    AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE TRIGLYCERIDES

    (in chylomicrons)

    Blood

    GLUCOSE

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    GLUCOSE

    HEPATOCYTES IN LIVER

    SKELETAL

    MUSCLE

    Storage

    + H2O +CO2

    MOST TISSUES

    Oxidation

    ATP

    Triglycerides

    ADIPOSE TISSUE

    VLDLs

    Triglycerides

    Fatty

    acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate

    Glucose

    Keto acids

    Fatty acidsProteins

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate Glycogen

    Glucose

    GlycogenGlycogen

    + H2O +CO2 ATP

    1

    2

    3

    4 5

    6

    7

    4

    AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE TRIGLYCERIDES

    (in chylomicrons)

    Blood

    GLUCOSE

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    GLUCOSE

    HEPATOCYTES IN LIVER

    SKELETAL

    MUSCLE

    Storage

    + H2O +CO2

    MOST TISSUES

    Oxidation

    ATP

    Triglycerides

    ADIPOSE TISSUE

    VLDLs

    Triglycerides

    Fatty

    acids

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate

    Glucose

    Keto acids

    Fatty acidsProteins

    Triglycerides

    Glyceraldehyde

    3-phosphate Glycogen

    Glucose

    GlycogenGlycogen

    ProteinsProteins

    + H2O +CO2 ATP

    1

    2

    3

    4 5

    6

    7

    8

    4

  • Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Metabolism during postabsorptive state  About 4 hours after the last meal absorption in

    small intestine nearly complete

     Blood glucose levels start to fall

     Main metabolic challenge to maintain normal blood glucose levels

     Glucose production

     Breakdown of liver glycogen, lipolysis, gluconeogenesis using lactic acid and/or amino acids

     Glucose conservation

     Oxidation of fatty acids, lactic acid, amino acids, ketone bodies and breakdown of muscle glycogen

  • Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Principal metabolic pathways during the

    postabsorptive state

  • 1

    Liver glycogen

    Glucose

    LIVER

    Blood

    HEARTADIPOSE TISSUE SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE

    OTHER TISSUES