energy metabolism 2011-2012

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30/10/2011

ContentDefinition Digestion and absorption of macronutrient Energy metabolism The role of micronutrient in energy metabolism Review Basal Metabolic Rate

Leny Budhi Harti Program Studi Ilmu Gizi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya Malang, 31 Oktober 2011

DefinitionMetabolisme :interkonversi senyawa kimia dalam tubuh, jalur yang diambil tiap molekul, hubungan antar molekul, dan mekanisme yang mengatur aliran metabolit melalui jalur-jalur metabolisme

DefinitionEksergonik katabolisme

MetabolismeEndergonik anabolisme

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Digestion & Absorption of MacronutrientDigestion & absorption of carbohydrate Digestion & absorption of protein Digestion & absorption of lipid

Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate

Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrate

Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrate

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Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrate

Digestion & Absorption of Protein

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Digestion & Absorption of Protein

Digestion & Absorption of LipidLarge fat droplets from stomach 1 Bile salts from liver 1 Bile salts from liver coat fat droplets. Pancreatic lipase and colipase break down fats into monoglycerides and fatty acids stored in micelles. Monoglycerides and fatty acids move out of micelles and enter cells by diffusion. Cholesterol is transported into cells by a membrane transporter. Absorbed fats combine with cholesterol and proteins in the intestinal cells to form chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are released into the lymphatic system. Emulsion Lipase 2 and colipase Micelles 3a 3b Bile salts recycled 2

Lumen of small intestine

3a

Smooth ER 4 Triglycerides + cholesterol + protein Cells of small intestine Chylomicron Golgi apparatus 5 Interstitial fluid Capillary Lacteal Lymph to vena cava

3b

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Summary of Macronutrient Digestin & Absorption

Energy MetabolismEnergy in the body is available for immediate use in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is classified as a high-energy compound and is stored in the tissues in small amounts ATP may be formed from either carbohydrate, fat, or protein

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Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

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Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

Energy MetabolismGlukosa-6 fosfat Gliserol 3 fosfatJaringan adiposa

Energy Metabolism

Asetil KoA

Triasilgliserol (TG)

FFA

Gliserol

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Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

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MikronutrientWaterbreak up and transform some energy compounds by a process known as hydrolysis

Niasin

What nutrients are necessary for the operation of the human energy systems?

niacin serves an important function in glycolysis

Thiam in

thiamin is needed to convert glycolytic end products to acetyl CoA for entrance into the Krebs cycle

Ribofl avin

is essential to forming ATP through the Krebs cycle and electron transfer system

Mikronutrient

Basal Metabolic Rate & Resting Energy Eexpenditure

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Basal Metabolic Rate Basal metabolism, or the basal metabolic rate (BMR), represents the energy requirements of the many different cellular and tissue processes that are necessary to continuing physiological activities in a resting, postabsorptive state throughout most of the day

Resting Energy Expenditure The resting metabolic rate (RMR) is slightly higher than the BMR. It represents the BMR plus small amounts of additional energy expenditure associated with eating and previous muscular activity. According to the National Research Council, the BMR and RMR differ by less than 10 percent

Effect Eating Meal to Matbolic Rate The significant elevation of the metabolic rate that occurs after ingestion of a meal was previously known as the specific dynamic action of food but is now often referred to as dietary-induced thermogenesis (DIT) or thermic effect of food (TEF).

Effect Eating Meal to Matabolic Rate TEF of carbohydrate : 5 10% TEF of protein : 20 30% TEF of fat : 0 5% TEF of alcohol : 15% Normal increase of BMR due to TEF from mix meal : 5 10%

Calori contrnt

Type of food

Alcohol

TEF

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Factors that Effect REEEnviron mentGenetically lean individuals have a higher REE Caffeine is a stimulant and may elicit a significant rise in the REE Smoking cigarettes also raises the REE. This may be one of the reasons why some individuals gain weightwhen they stop smoking

Genetic

Body composi tion

REEIndividuals with naturally greater muscle mass in comparison to body fat have a higher REE

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