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DEPERTEMEN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA PROGRAM PASCASARJANA FAKULTAS TEKNIK JURUSAN TEKNIK GEOLOGI

RENCANA PROPOSAL PENELITIAN DISERTASI DIAJUKAN KEPADA JURUSAN TEKNIK GEOLOGI Judul STUDI PENGGUNAAN TAILING DAN LIMONIT SEBAGAI KATALIS PADA PENCAIRAN BATUBARA PERINGKAT RENDAH INDONESIA

Oleh : Harli Talla

YOGYAKARTA

DEPERTEMEN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA PROGRAM PASCASARJANA FAKULTAS TEKNIK JURUSAN TEKNIK GEOLOGI

PROPOSAL PENELITIAN DISERTASI DIAJUKAN KEPADA JURUSAN TEKNIK GEOLOGI Judul PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK BATUBARA TERHADAP HASIL PENCAIRAN DAN PRODUK MINYAK YANG DIHASILKAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN TAILING DAN LIMONIT SEBAGAI KATALIS

Oleh : Harli Talla NIM: 10/306354/STK/00298 YOGYAKARTA 2011

DAFTAR ISI

Lembaran judul Lembar pengesahan Daftar isi 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Pendahuluan Latar Belakang ............................................................................................................ Perumusan Masalah .................................................................................................... Tujuan Penelitian ........................................................................................................ Batasan Masalah ......................................................................................................... Lokasi Penelitian ........................................................................................................ 1 3 3 4 4 6 6 6 6 9 9 10 10 10 13 14 15 15 17 18 18 19 20 20 22 23 25 26 26 27 28 28

2. Geologi Daerah Penelitian 2.1 Tinjauan Geologi Daerah Penelitian ........................................................................... 2.2 Geologi Cekungan Papua Utara ................................................................................. 2.2.1 Fisiografi ........................................................................................................... 2.2.2 Stratigrafi .......................................................................................................... 2.2.3 Tektonik regional .............................................................................................. 2.2.4 Karakteristik batubara cekungan Papua Utara .................................................. 2.3 Geologi Cekungan Kutai ............................................................................................. 2.3.1 Fisiografi ........................................................................................................... 2.3.2 Stratigrafi .......................................................................................................... 2.3.3 Tektonik regional .............................................................................................. 2.3.4 Karakteristik batubara Cekungan Kutai ........................................................... 2.4 Geologi Cekungan Sumatera Selatan .......................................................................... 2.4.1 Fisiografi ........................................................................................................... 2.4.2 Stratigrafi .......................................................................................................... 2.4.3 Tektonik regional .............................................................................................. 2.4.4 Karakteristik batubara Cekungan Sumatera Selatan ......................................... 2.5 Rangkuman Karakteristik Batubara ............................................................................ 3. Landasan Teori 3.1 Karakteristik Batubara ............................................................................................... 3.1.1 Peringkat batubara ............................................................................................ 3.1.2 Komposisi kimia batubara ................................................................................ 3.1.3 Struktur kimia batubara .................................................................................... 3.1.4 Komponen organik (maseral) ........................................................................... 3.1.5 Komponen non organik (mineral) ..................................................................... 3.2 Pengaruh Karakteristik Batubara terhadap Hasil Pencairan ....................................... 3.3 Pencairan Batubara ..................................................................................................... 3.3.1 Pencairan batubara tidak langsung ................................................................... 3.3.2 Pencairan batubara langsung ............................................................................

3.4 Katalis Dalam Pencairan Batubara .............................................................................. 3.4.1 Transformasi katalis menjadi pirhotit .............................................................. 3.4.2 Pemanfaatan tailing sebagai katalis .................................................................. 3.4.3 Pemanfaatan limonit sebagai katalis ................................................................ 3.5 Produk Batubara Cair .................................................................................................. 3.6 Hipotesis ...................................................................................................................... 4. Metodologi dan Desain Penelitian 4.1 Data ............................................................................................................................ 4.2 Alat dan Bahan .......................................................................................................... 4.3 Tahapan Penelitian .................................................................................................... 4.3.1 Tahap pendahuluan ........................................................................................... 4.3.2 Tahap Pekerjaan lapangan ................................................................................ 4.3.3 Tahap analisis laboratorium .............................................................................. 4.3.4 Tahap analisis data dan penyusunan laporan ................................................... 4.2 Rancangan Pengujian .................................................................................................. 4.3 Tempat Pengujian Laboratorium ................................................................................ 4.4 Luaran Penelitian ........................................................................................................ 4.5 Jadwal Penelitian ......................................................................................................... Daftar pustaka

30 30 32 33 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 42 42 43 46 46

DAFTAR GAMBAR Halaman Gambar 1.1. Lokasi penelitian .......................................................................................... Gambar 2.1. Cekungan Papua Utara dan kondisi tektonik serta stratigrafinya ................ Gambar 2.2. Cekungan Kutai dan kolom stratigrafinya ................................................... Gambar 2.3. Cekungan Sumatera Selatan dan kolom stratigrafinya ................................ Gambar 3.1. Struktur batubara berdasarkan peringkatnya ................................................ Gambar 3.2. Perubahan struktur batubara dengan peningkatan peringkat ...................... Gambar 3.3. Rasio hidrogen/carbon bahan bakar ............................................................. 5 7 11 16 23 24 27

Gambar 3.4. Mekanisme metode hidrogenasi katalitik ..................................................... 30 Gambar 3.5. Bentuk transformasi besi sulfide selama pencairan batubara ....................... 31 Gambar 3.6. Pengendapan tailing di Sungai Ajkwa ........................................................ 32 Gambar 3.7. Profil nikel dari blok timur dan barat daerah Soroako ................................. Gambar 3.8. Struktur produk batubara cair hasil destilasi ................................................ Gambar 4.2. Diagram alir metode penelitian ................................................................... 34 35 45

Gambar 4.1. Skema pencairan hidrogenasi katalitik ......................................................... 44

DAFTAR TABEL

Halaman Tabel 2.1. Rangkuman Karakteristik Batubara .................................................................. 19 Tabel 3.1. Klasifikasi batubara berdasarkan tingkatnya ................................................... 21 Tabel 3.2. Kandungan unsur utama batubara dari berbagai peringkat .............................. 22 Tabel 3.3. Komposisi elemen grup maseral batubara peringkat rendah ........................... 25 Tabel 3.4. Hasil analisa kimia tailing PT Freeport Indonesia ........................................... 33 Tabel 4.1. Rancangan variabel pengujian pencairan batubara .......................................... 43 Tabel 4.2. Jadwal kegiatan penelitian ............................................................................... 46

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Allen, G.P., Chambers, J.L.C., 1998. Regional geology and stratigraphy of the Kutei basin. In: Sedimentation in the modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta, IPA Fieldtrip Guidebook, Chapter 9, hal. 159-171.

Amijaya, D.H., 2005. Paleoenvironmental, Paleoecological And Thermal Metamorphism Implications On The Organic Petrography And Organic Geochemistry Of Tertiary Tanjung Enim Coal, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia. Aachen University, Ph.D. Dissertation, 157 hal. ASTM International., 2002. Coal and coke, in Annual book of ASTM standards, section 5, Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels, v. 05.06, Gaseous Fuels; Coal and Coke: Philadelphia, Pa., ASTM International, hal, 163626. Bergius, F., 1932. Chemical Reactions Under High P

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