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Thinking Critically and Creatively

Creative thinkingfleksibel, tidak konvensional, eksentrik (aneh), bersemangat, bebas, berpusat pada diri sendiri, bekerja keras, berdedikasi dan inteligen, berpikir bebas, fleksibel, dan imajinatif.

Creative thinkingMemandang dirinya berbeda dan lebih sering melukiskan dari mereka sebagai berdaya cipta, tak tergantung, bersifat individualis.Lebih terbuka dalam pengalaman dan perasaan.Secara relatif tidak tertarik pada detail kecil, tetapi lebih tertarik pada arti dan implikasi, memiliki fleksibel kognitif, ketrampilan verbal, berminat untuk berkomunikasi dengan orang lain, bertindak tepat, mempunyai keingintahuan intelektual yang besar.Lebih tertarik secara mendalam menyerap pengalaman daripada mempertimbangkan.Lebih bersifat intuitif.

Creative thinkingBebas berpikir dan bertindak.Tidak menyukai konformitas (kesesuaian).Tidak mudah dipengaruhi pendapat umum bila yakin bahwa pendapatnya benar.Kurang dokmatis dan lebih realistis.Mengakui dorongan-dorongan dirinya yang tidak berdasar akal (irrasional).Mengakui hal-hal yang rumit dan baru.Mengakui humor dan memiliki good sense of humor.Menekankan pentingnya nilai-nilai teoritik dan estetis.

Creative thinkingMemiliki dorongan ingin tahu besar.Sering mengajukan pertanyaan yang baik.Sering banyak gagasan dan usul terhadap suatu masalah.Bebas dalam menyatakan pendapat.Menonjol dalam salah satu bidang seni.Memiliki pendapat sendiri dan mampu mengutarakannya.Tidak mudah terpengaruh orang lain.Daya imajinasi kuat.Memiliki tingkat orisionalitas yang tinggi.Dapat bekerja sendiri.Senang mencoba hal-hal yang baru.

Creative thinkingAdanya kelancaran, kesigapan, dan kemampuan menghasilkan banyak gagasan.Adanya fleksibilitas, yaitu kemampuan untuk menggunakan berbagai pendekatan dalam mengatasi masalah.Adanya keaslian, yaitu kemampuan menghasilkan gagasan yang asli.Adanya pengembangan, yaitu kemampuan untuk melakukan hal-hal secara detail dan terinci.Adanya perumusan kembali, yaitu kemampuan untuk merumuskan pengertian dengan cara dari sudut pandang yang berbeda.

ThinkingCritically and CreativelyDwi Korina Relawati, MA

The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus characterthat is the goal of true education.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Critical thinking is needed to solve the complex problems in the world today.

For example:Now that I look back, I realize that a life predicated on being obedient and taking orders is a very comfortable life indeed. Living in such a way reduces to a minimum ones own need to think.--Adolph Eichman who played a central rolein the killing of six million Jews

Fallacies in ReasoningPatterns of incorrect reasoning

Appeal to A Questionable AuthorityExample: Using sports figures to endorse products

Jumping to ConclusionsA hasty generalization Example: One college student does not pay back a loan. The bank manager concludes that students are poor risks for loans.

Making GeneralizationsAssume all members of the group are the sameExample: All lawyers are greedy.

Attacking the Person We attack the person rather than discussing the issueExample: Attacking the President to sidetrack the issues

Appeal to Common BeliefJust because it is common belief does not make it trueExample: At one time people believed that the world was flat

Common PracticeIf everyone does it, it must be OKExample: Its OK to cheat on your taxes. Everyone else does.

Appeal to TraditionWeve always done it that wayExample: Some jobs are only for men and others only for women

Two WrongsIt is OK to do something wrong because other people do itExample: Someone cuts you off on the freeway so you pull in front and cut them off

Slippery SlopeDire consequencesExample: If you fail this class, you are a failure for life

Wishful ThinkingAn extremely positive outcome is proposed to distract from logicExample: Get rich quick schemes

Beware of ScamsIts too good to be trueThere is a rush to make a decisionYou have to pay money or give your credit card number High pressure, time limitsPrizes and big promisesThe word free

Critical Thinking Over the InternetBeware of appearances.What is the source?Why was the information posted?What is the date of the Web site?Can the information be verified elsewhere?

Appeal to Fear or Scare TacticsEmotions interfere with rational thinkingExample: Political advertisements that describe dire consequences

Appeal to PityAgain, emotions replace logicExample: Sob story

Appeal to LoyaltyGroup behavior, right or wrongExample: Voting for the candidate who appears most popular

Appeal to PrejudiceA stereotype in which all members of a group are judged to be the sameExample: Racial prejudices

Appeal to VanityMaking complimentsExample: Apple polishing

Post Hoc Reasoning or False CausesCause and effect are not relatedExample: Superstitions

Straw Men or WomenCreate an image of someone else, like a scarecrow, to discredit the personExample: Political speeches which paint the opponent in an unfavorable light

Cult BehaviorBeliefs for which hard evidence is lackingExample: Cults such as Heavens GateThe opposite of critical thinkingBlindly following a charismatic leaderBelonging to a group

How to Become a Critical Thinker

Universal Standards to Assure Quality ThinkingClarityAccuracyPrecisionRelevanceDepthBreadthLogicFairness

Alternative Views


Individual Point of View Based on:ExperienceValuesBeliefsCultureKnowledge

The Critical Thinking ProcessState the problem in a clear wayIdentify the alternative viewsWatch for fallacies in reasoningFind at least 3 different answersConstruct your own reasonable view

Exercise: Critical Thinking

Tips for Critical ThinkingBeware of your mind-setBe willing to say, I dont know.Practice toleranceUnderstand different points of viewUnderstand before criticizingEmotions get in the way of clear thinkingExamine the source

Questions for Critical ThinkersWho said it?What makes the author think so?So what?

Creative Thinking

Creative thinking is part of the critical thinking process. Use it for:Generating alternativesThinking of possibilitiesCreative problem solvingCreating new ideasUsing more of your potential

The Creative IndividualAsks, Why?Is curious about the worldLooks at many possibilities or alternatives (divergent thinking)

The Three Ss of CreativitySensitivitySynergySerendipityS's

Uses the senses to discover the worldAsks, Why does this happen? How can I do this?Problem finders as well as problem solvers


Two or more elements are associated in a new way and the result is greater than the sum of the partsExample: Two heads are better than one.Synergy

Unexpected discoveriesLucky accidentsSome examples . . . .Serendipity

SerendiptiyRemember Alexander Fleming?

Serendipity: Duke Ellington

Creative Thinking Techniques

BrainstormingQuantity without regard to quality as a first stepTime limitGoal or quotaWild and unusual is goodUse synergy by doing it in a groupUse fantasy and imaginationSelect the best ideas as a last step

Brainstorming Exercise:The Peanut

Look at your peanut.

How is this peanut like you?

Can you come up with 10 answers in 3 minutes?

Lets hear your creative ideas.

How is this peanut like you?Its wrinkled, like me.Its brown, like me.It cracks under pressure.What you see is not always what you get.Everyone is different.It just sits in class.

How is this peanut like going to college?

Lets use some synergy and work together on this one.

How many answers can we come up with in 5 minutes?

You can steal other peoples ideas.

How is this peanut like going to college?There are 2 nuts inside. One is the teacher and one is the student. Were all nuts to a degree!College drives me nuts!Its rough.We both went to class today.

Elements of CreativityUse the pressure of a time limit.Use a goal or quota.Be relaxed.Suspend judgment.Focus your attention.Have fun with it.Use a different perspective.

More Techniques

Relaxed AttentionThe paradox of:Ho-hum Aha!

Relax and then focus

Relaxed AttentionThink about itRelax and let it incubateThe creative inspiration is the aha!

Use Relaxed Attention in StudyingIf you get stuck on a problem, relax and come back to it laterYou are likely to come up with a creative inspiration while relaxingCome back to the problem and solve it

Idea FilesIdeas you find interestingCan you think of examples?

Visualization and ImaginationUseful for:Memory RelaxationCreativity

Exercise:Using Visualization and Imagination

Can you make the light go on?

More Creativity TechniquesReadKeep a journalThink critically

Keys to Success:Learn to Laugh at Life

Have a laugh at life and look around for happiness instead of sadness.

--Red Skelton

The physical act of smiling makes you feel happier.

If you do not feel happy, smile and pretend to be happy.Smiling produces seratonin which is a neurotransmitter linked with feelings of happiness

So, smile and be happy. Use your creativity to make some positive changes in your life.