anatomi perbandingan vertebrata

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ANATOMI PERBANDINGAN VERTEBRATA. Novi Febrianti. SEKILAS ANATOMI. Anatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti memotong Istilah-istilah anatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani dan Latin. Cabang – cabang Anatomi :. Microscopic anatomy / Anatomi mikroskopis ( Sitologi , Histologi ) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ANATOMI PERBANDINGAN VERTEBRATA

ANATOMI PERBANDINGANVERTEBRATANovi Febrianti1SEKILAS ANATOMIAnatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti memotongIstilah-istilah anatomi berasal dari bahasa Yunani dan Latin

Cabang cabang Anatomi:Microscopic anatomy/Anatomi mikroskopis (Sitologi, Histologi)Developmental anatomy/Anatomi perkembangan (Embriologi)Comparative anatomy/Anatomi perbandinganCOMPARATIVE ANATOMYMempelajari susunan tubuh hewan vertebrata

Membandingkan susunan organ tubuh antar kelas pada sub phylum vertebrata

Tubuh hewan terbagi menjadi :- caput / chepala : kepala- collum / cervix : leher- trunchus : badan- cauda : ekor- extremitas : anggota badan bebas^ ant / pos ^ sup / inv

TERMINOLOGI

Anterior posterior (arah)Superior inferior (arah)Dorsal : daerah punggungVentral : daerah perutLateral : daerah samping / sisiCranial : daerah kepalaCaudal : daerah ekorAbdominal : daerah badanThoracal : daerah dada (dalam dada)TERMINOLOGI

Sinister : kiriDexter : kananMedial : daerah tengahLinea mediana : garis tengah tubuhProximal : lebih kearah / dekat LMDistal : lebih menjauhi LMOrigo : titik pangkal tidak bergerakInsersio :: menimbulkan gerak

TERMINOLOGI

Organ analogMayor = besarMinor = kecilPectoral : dadaPelvis : punggung bawahBilateral simetri

Simetri tubuhBAB 9 DUNIA HEWANSimetri radialSimetri bilateralDorsalBidang simetriVentralAnteriorVentralDorsalBidang simetriPosterior

Tiga kelompok hewan triploblastikAselomataPseudoselomataSelomataCacing pipihEktodermMesoderm (otot)MesenkimEndoderm (usus)Cacing giligPseudoselomOrgan internalEktodermEndoderm (usus)Mesoderm(otot)Cacing tanahEktodermSelomEndoderm (usus)Mesoderm(peritoneum)Organ internalMesoderm (otot)BAB 9 DUNIA HEWAN

Sistem penyokong tubuh hewanCangkang luarEndoskeletonEksoskeletonTubuh lintahdibentuk olehcairan di dalamtubuhnyaBAB 9 DUNIA HEWAN

Sistem tubuh pada hewanSaluran kelaminTestisOtak sederhana dengandua ganglionOvariumUsus bagian dari sistemsaluran pencernaanOtak kecilLambungEksoskeletonKelenjar pencernaanNotokorda berada disepanjang tubuh bagian ventralOtak besarParu-paruGinjalJantungUsusPembuluh darahBAB 9 DUNIA HEWANPHYLUM CHORDATACiri ciri :Adanya dorsal tubular nerve cord, pada keadaan embrio, larva atau seumur hidup. Mempunyai notochord, minimal pada fase embrioPada dinding pharynx ada lubang-lubang/celah-celah pada keadaan larva atau seumur hidup (pharyngeal slits). Mempunyai ekorAnatomy of a Chordate

Subphylum Urochordata sea squirts or tunicates notochord present only in free-swimming larvum notochord does not extend into head larvum is free-swimming but non-feeding adult is sessile filter feederSubphylum Urochordata

sea squirts or tunicate Campbell p 631

Settle after brief free-swimming larvum existence. Attaches at anterior end. Metamorphosis begins. Body turns 1800. Tail, notochord, dorsal nerve cord, disappear.Subphylum Cephalochordatahead cord lancelet or Amphioxus notochord present throughout life extends into head regionshallow marine waterschordate characteristics developed and apparent in adulttail has blocks of muscles called myotomesadults resemble tunicate larvum

Anatomy ofa lancelet

Cephalochordata: lanceletSubphylum VertebrataGeneral Characteristics: chordates with a backboneexhibit cephalizationclosed circulatory systemneural crest (p. 633)

Subphylum VertebrataAgnatha (without jaws)lamprey parasitic bloodsuckers w/ rasping tonguehagfish mainly scavengersno paired appendageslarvum resembles lancelet

Agnatha: a sea lamprey

Lamprey mouth

Subphylum VertebrataChondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)flexible endoskeletons of cartilage strengthened by calcium granulessharks (internal fertilization)oviparous egg layingovoviviparous retain fertilized eggs hatch within the uterus viviparous young develop in the uterussuspension-feeders (plankton)

Cephalochordata: lanceletSubphylum VertebrataChondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)

Bottom feeders mollusks & crustaceansWhiplike tail w/ venomous barbs (defense)

Subphylum VertebrataChondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)

Bottom feeders mollusks & crustaceansWhiplike tail w/ venomous barbs (defense)

Subphylum VertebrataOsteichthyes (bony fishes)Endoskeleton of hard calcium phosphate matrixOperculum- protective flapSwim bladder controls buoyancy

Seahorse

Subphylum VertebrataAmphibia (two lives)first tetrapodstransition to land still tied to water for respiration and reproductionGills lungs (metamorphosis)Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts

Subphylum VertebrataReptilia (Campbell, p. 644)(to creep)lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises, Gila monsters, crocodiles, alligatorsfirst true land animalScales, lungs, amniotic eggno featherscold-blooded ectotherms (energy conservation)

Hatching reptile

Subphylum VertebrataFossil linksEvolutionary link ?? between reptiles and birds: Archaeopteryx , a Jurassuc bird-reptileClawed forelimbsTeethLong tail w/ vertebrae

ArchaeopteryxSubphylum VertebrataAves (bird)

featheredfew flightless: ostrich, kiwi, emubreastbone with keel carina permitting flightjays, sparrows, warblers, etc

Subphylum VertebrataMammalia (breast)Hair or fur of keratinActive metabolism = endothermicEfficient respiration w/ diaphragmEfficient circulation w/ 4-chambered heartLayer of fatMammary glands, tooth differentiation

Subphylum VertebrataMammalia (breast)

Monotremes egg-laying mammals (Platypuses & echidnas spiny anteaters)Placental mammalsMarsupial mammals kangaroo, opossum

Marsupial &PlacentalMammals

Marsupial Placental